Therefore, the O matrices are used to balance the smoothing matrices and are different from the observational error
covariance matrix in the theory.
The observational error
estimates used in this analysis are for daytime fluxes based on a percentage of the observed fluxes, as suggested by Hollinger and Richardson (2005): net all-wave radiation flux, 5%; turbulent sensible heat flux, 10%; latent heat flux, 8%; and upward components of both shortwave and longwave radiation fluxes, 10%.
The medians also tend to decrease when the highest CPUE values of the early years of the time series are omitted, which would be expected, given the fact that [[tau].sup.2] is the variance of the observational error
What constitutes a high-quality observation and/or which transformations are to be considered as improving the quality of observations is contingent upon the four sources of observational error
is difficult to estimate in the subsurface ocean.
And, with Egyptian concerns about precision--one might even say obsession with precision--an observational error
of such magnitude would be unacceptable.
Tycho's observing regimen reflected an appreciation of observational error
. Rather than rely upon a single measurement, he performed up to seven determinations of fundamental data, reported them all, and let the uncertainty scatter in an honest display of the limits of his procedure and apparatus.
This problem is called 'under-dispersion', according to Clark, who added: 'To fix under-dispersion, there are many areas of ongoing research that involve figuring out how to properly account for model and observational errors
, and how to best assimilate different data sources into the model.'
The observational errors
with a small dispersion form a "hat" above the normal fit and cause a kurtosis effect, while the errors of less accurate observations are modeled by 7 % evenly distributed outliers whose magnitude is between 2.5 [sigma] and 4 [sigma].
TLS method that is a modeling technique with considering observational errors
is not scale invariant , so that it may not be directly used for removing noise in k-space reconstruction, because signal amplitudes at low frequency and high frequency of k-space differ largely in scale.
Other explanations have included natural climate variability and observational errors
. Incorporating volcanic influences into the climate models reduced the difference between observed and simulated trends by up to 15%.
The observational errors
and representativeness errors were assumed to be the same as those applied in the long-term state estimation experiment .