Active isotonic and isometric strengthening exercises were prescribed to strengthen the frontal abdominal muscles (musculus obliquus externus abdominis, musculus obliquus internus
abdominis, musculus rectus abdominis), deep abdominal muscles (musculus psoas major, musculus psoas minor, musculus iliacus, musculus quadratum lumbarum), and back muscles (musculi dorsi, musculus erector spinae, musculi transverso-spinales, musculi inter-spinales, musculi intertransversarii).
As the dissection was conducted layer by layer from the back, after punching through the skin, the laparoscope could go through superficial fascia, latissimus dorsi, obliquus internus
abdominis, transversus abdominis, transverse fascia and extraperitoneal fat layer and finally reached the retroperitoneal space (Fig.
The muscle layer of obliquus internus, transverse abdominis and obliquus externus that were separated and teared were sutured in simple continuous pattern using Polyglactin (e) 910 (Vicryl) (# 1) layer by layer.
The muscle layer of obliquus externus, obliquus internus and transverse abdominis were oedematous with some fibrotic changes (Fig.
The inferior lumbar triangle (triangle of Petit) which is an upright triangle and contains three major layers from superficial to deep: Subcutaneous fatty tissue, the abdominis obliquus internus
muscle and transversus abdominis muscle and their fascias, is located among the anterior margin of the latissimus dorsi muscle, posterior margin of the abdominis obliquus externus muscle and inferiorly the crista iliaca.
The authors found that there was a significant increase in distance walked (p<0.05), more upright posture, an increase in sit-ups executed (p<0.05) and an increase in resting thicknesses of all the four abdominal muscles was recorded: transversus abdominis (p<0.05) obliquus internus
(p<0.05), obliquus externus (p<0.05) and the rectus abdominis (p<0.05).
EMG signals of multifidus at level L5 (MF), erector spine at level L1 (ES), rectus abdominis (RA), obliquus externus (OE), and obliquus internus
(OI) were recorded on the right side of the body with electrodes placed in accordance with previous studies (Hibbs et al., 2011; Radebold et al., 2000; Stokes et al., 2006).
During the tests, electromyographic signals of the rectus abdominis, obliquus internus
and obliquus externus muscles were recorded.
Endleman I and Critchley D (2008): Transversus abdominis and obliquus internus
activity during Pilates exercises: Measurement with ultrasound scanning.
Ultrastructural fiber typing of human abdominal muscles obliquus internus