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More than 2/3 of our study subjects had moderate or severe OSAS.
The scores of our study population of mild, moderate and severe OSAS patients were 8.
Hora et al reported that OSAS patients had higher BMI, waist-to hip ratio and neck circumference as compared to controls [21].
A study by Sasanabe [9] did not detect a significant difference in HDL levels, whereas they detected differences in severe OSAS patients in their fasting plasma glucose, LDL and lipid profiles.
We detected overlap syndrome in 35% of patients referred to our clinic, although a recent study by Bednarek et al [23] declared that COPD in subjects with OSAS was as frequent as in the general population.
The lower incisors in the children with OSAS tended to exhibit a retrocline.
In adults with OSAS, the entire structure of the cranial base has been reported to be rotated slightly counterclockwise in the sagittal plane, [15] but we did not observe a similar counterclockwise rotation in children.
In our study, the children with OSAS had a narrower epipharyngeal airway space than did the controls and a significantly larger value with regard to the height of the lower pharynx.
Altogether, this study indicates that the retromandibular space, as measured by lateral cephalography, is smaller in most children with OSAS and appears to provide insufficient space for the tongue in the pharyngeal cavity.
Although polysomnography is routinely performed to evaluate children with OSAS, normal polysomnographic values for children in the preschool-age group have not yet been established.
Several abnormal patterns of craniofacial development have been recognized in adults who were previously considered to be morphologically normal but who manifested OSAS.