The Nuremberg Doctors' Trial and the Nuremberg Code
. In: Schmidt U, Frewer A, eds.
7.1, a, of the Proposal), which, as we saw above, was insufficient in the Nuremberg Code
and also in the International Covenant for Civil and Political Rights.
such as the Nuremberg Code
, lack any sanctions or enforcement
The Nuremberg Code
(Nuremberg) is often considered the founding document of the development of international and national codes on the ethics of human experimentation.
A central example is the IOM Committee's view of the Nuremberg Code
and the Code's insistence on informed consent.
In spite of these challenges, the tenets of historical and existing human subjects research protections (e.g., Nuremberg Code
, Belmont Report) are consistent with tenets of the National Association of Social Workers Code of Ethics (Drewry, 2004), specifically client self-determination, protection of marginalized or vulnerable populations, informed consent, and social justice.
The Nuremberg Code
, the Declaration of Helsinki (World Medical Association, 2000), and the Belmont Report (Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, 1979) represent the evolving acceptance of ethical principles in research worldwide.
Its bioethical importance was first officially recognized in the Nuremberg Code
, adopted after World War II in reaction to the revelation of atrocities committed by Nazi doctors in the name of medical research.
This seems odd; after all, "voluntary" is the second word (after "the") in the oldest formal statement on research ethics, the Nuremberg Code
For example, many researchers objected to the binding nature of the Nuremberg Code
as an appropriate guide for their behavior.
As an indication of how the issue of conducting research with children has evolved since their exclusion in the Nuremberg Code
, children are not only included as a vulnerable population entitled to extra protection, but Guideline 14 of the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS) (2002) report is entitled "Research Involving Children."
(5.) For a further explanation of the conditions for informed consent, see the Principles of the Nuremberg Code