The Global Human Recombinant Insulin Market, by Product Type (Rapid-Acting Human Insulin, Short-Acting Human Insulin, Intermediate-Acting Human Insulin, Long-Acting Human Insulin, and Premixed Human Insulin), by Brand (Humalog, Novolog, Apidra, Humulin R, Novolin
R, Humulin N, Novolin
N, Levemir, Lantus, Humalog Mix, Novolog Mix, and Others), By Distribution Channel (Hospital Pharmacies, Retail Pharmacies, and Online Pharmacies) was valued US$ 27.4 billion in 2018, and is projected to exhibit a CAGR of 7.2% over the forecast period (2018 - 2026) as highlighted in a new report published by Coherent Market Insights.
Louis, MO, USA) 1g/kg body weight or insulin (Novolin
R; Novo Nordisk) 0.75 U/kg body weight, blood glucose was measured using ACCU-CHEK Active.
For the insulin tolerance test (ITT), mice were fasted for 6 hours and injected with insulin (1.0 U/kg body weight) (Novolin
R; Novo Nordisk, Bagsvaerd, Denmark).
The mice were injected with human regular insulin (0.5 or 0.75 U/kg body weight, Novolin
R; Novo Nordisk, Bagsvaerd, Denmark) intraperitoneally, followed by measurement of blood glucose levels at 0,10,20,40,60, and 80 min after injection.
The total insulin dose at discharge was 11 units/day (7 units of Novolin
R short-acting insulin and 4 units of Apidra ultra-rapid-acting insulin).
colocynthis control group (CC group), was administered orally aqueous extract of CC (300 mg/ kg b.w.) using an intragastric tube daily for 4 successive weeks ; (3) diabetic group (D group), did not receive any medication with free access to food and water; (4) diabetic insulin-treated group (D + insulin group), was injected subcutaneously with insulin (1 U/kg b.w.) (NPH Novolin
N; Novo Nordisk, Bagsvaerd, Denmark) daily for 4 successive weeks ; (5) diabetic CC-treated group (D + CC group), received orally aqueous extract of CC seeds daily by an intragastric tube for 4 successive weeks at a daily dose of 300 mg/kg b.w.
After diabetes characterization, the D+I and D+I+M rats were submitted to a seven-day treatment with insulin (Novolin
N Human Insulin -NPH) at a dose of 3 units per day (1U at 8:00 a.m.
with insulin at the dose of 1 U.[kg.sup.-1] body weight (Novolin
; Novo Nordisk, Montes Claros-MG, Brazil).
Common Types of Insulin Source Onset of Peak Duration Generic Name Trade Name Action Action of Action NPH Humulin N, 1-3 hours 8 hours 12-16 Novolin
N hours Glargine Lantus 1 hour flat 20-26 Detemir Levemir hours Regular Humulin R 1130-60 2-4 hours 5-8 hours Novolin
R minutes Glulisine/ Apidra, 15 30-90 4-6 hours Aspart/Lispro NovoLog, minutes minutes Humalog NPH and regular Humulin 70/30 30-60 Varies-1.5 10-16 70% NPH and 30% Novolin
70/30 minutes hours hours regular 50% NPH Humulin 50/50 and 50% regular 50% insulin Humalog 50/50 5-15 Varies-1.5 10-16 lispro protamine NovoLog minutes hours hours and 50% insulin 170/30 lispro 70% insulin aspart protamine and 30% insulin aspart Source: Adapted from U.S.
On admission, J.D.'s medications included allopurinol (Zyloprim[R]) 100 mg daily, calcitriol (Rocaltrol[R]) 0.25 mcg twice daily, Os-Cal[R] D 500 mg by mouth (po) twice daily, cinacalcet (Sensipar[R]) 60 mg daily, warfarin (Coumadin[R]), digoxin 0.125 mg daily, furosemide (Lasix[R]) 80 mg po twice daily, metolazone (Zaroxolyn[R]) 10 mg daily, Novolin
70/30-60 units subcutaneous (SQ) in the morning and 40 units SQ each evening, Novolin
R sliding scale, levothyroxine sodium (Synthroid[R]) 50 mcg daily, acetaminophen and oxycodone (Percocet[R]) 5-325 1 pill every 4 hours as needed (prn), and simvastatin (Zocor[R]) 40 mg at the hour of sleep.
All the reagents used in these experiments were of analytical grades as follows: acarbose (Glucobay 50, Bayer Schering Pharma, Germany), glucose solution (Parenteral 20% and 40% Glucose Solutions, Otsuka, Tokyo, Japan), insulin (Novolin
R 100, Novo Nordisk, Tokyo), normal saline (Parenteral 0.9% Sodium Chloride Solution, Otsuka, Tokyo), pentobarbital sodium (Tokyo Chemical Industry, Tokyo), trichloroacetic acid (Nacalai Tesque, Kyoto, Japan), Arabic gum, carboxymethyl cellulose sodium salt, phenol red, sodium hydroxide, chlorogenic acid, caffeine, theobromine (Wako, Osaka, Japan).
The physician writes "Novolog 10 units now and 10 units Novolin
at bedtime." The staff member reads the order and proceeds to administer the Novolog 10 units.