Physiological and behavioral changes in honey bees (Apis mellifera) induced by Nosema
Isolation of Nosema
algerae from the cornea of an immunocompetent patient.
Colony-Collapse Disorder in honeybees has been postulated to be due to infection with the microsporidian Nosema
(Higes et al.
In the case of Nosemosis, Nosema
spores were found in seven apiaries with a total of 27 (64.
Apicultural practices driven by the economics of the industry such as transporting hives for pollination services, have contributed to the spread of Varroa and a newly arrived and possibly more virulent species of Nosema
This definition has recently been revised to include low levels of Varroa mite and other pathogens, such as Nosema
, as probable contributing factors.
They discuss Varroa mite tolerance in bees and the global status of various honey bee mites; the biological control of pests; protocols for collecting, preserving, analyzing, and reporting diagnostics aimed at bees and their microbes; viruses and their effect on colonies; the use of polymerase chain reaction and microscopy and antibody tests in the analysis of Nosema
in bees; the effects of temperature on the incidence of chalkbrood fungi; the impact of small hive beetles; pesticides and honey bee toxicity, especially Colony Collapse Disorder; fungicides; the impact of bee disorders on crop pollination; calculating and reporting colony losses; and the conservation of plant-pollinator interactions.
Add to this significant parasitic stress from other new introduced pathogens such as Nosema
ceranae, which attacks the honeybee gut lining; a whole variety of newly identified viruses and introduced secondary predators; and the small hive beetle, which targets weakening honeybee colony populations; and it is not surprising that the yearly USDA-spon-sored industry survey has recorded an average 30% loss of honeybee colonies in a defined window of time over the past several years.
Already, he said, there is some indication that the bees make a roaring noise when they have lost their queen, and become very noisy at night when they are infected by nosema
- a bacteria that causes diarrhoea and that is thought to be responsible for the collapse of entire colonies.
Preliminary results indicate that we have the ability to identify the presence of some of the most common factors that impact on the health of a colony, such as the Varroa destructor mite and the Nosema
Varroa destructor mites and Nosema
ceranae gut parasites can weaken and kill colonies.
Perhaps this is contributing to the susceptibility of the bees to strains of Nosema
bombi and other bacteria or viruses?