The original excavator of most Northern Flicker cavities was unclear, but Northern Flickers enlarged two of the six Hairy Woodpecker cavities we monitored tot more than 1 y.
Specifically, we examined the variables influencing breeding season occupancy of cavities previously used by Lewis's and Red-headed Woodpeckers and Northern Flickers, and we examined the relative importance of their cavities and the breeding cavities used by other primary and secondary cavity users during the non-breeding season.
erythrocephalus), Northern Flickers (NOFL; Colaptes auratus), Red-breasted Nuthatches (RBNU; Sitta canadensis), and White-breasted Nuthatches (WBNU; S.
The two breeding season checks were timed to ensure that early nesters, such as Northern Flickers, nuthatches and bluebirds would not be missed, and the second check was late enough to ensure that birds that initiate nests later in the season, such as Lewis's and Red-headed Woodpeckers, would not be missed.
My goal was to evaluate how the White-headed Woodpecker, Hairy Woodpecker, and Northern Flicker use managed Ponderosa Pine forests for breeding in Washington.
I used the same procedure for locating Northern Flicker cavities, with the exception of call playbacks, and I also checked cavities used by flickers in previous years due to their propensity for reusing cavities (Gentry and Vierling 2008).
I sampled vegetation at 77 White-headed Woodpecker, 89 Hairy Woodpecker, and 114 Northern Flicker nests (Table 1).
Compared to the other species, Northern Flickers used Type 1 substrates (Table 1) more frequently ([chi square] = 6.