Also, the Pontifical Commission for the Study of Population, Family and Births created by Pope Paul VI in 1963 to recommend whether modern contraceptive methods could be permitted, concluded by a vote of 9 of the 12 bishops, 15 of the 19 theologians, and 30 of the 35 nonepiscopal members that "no natural law proscribed nonreproductive sex
and no doctrinal, scientific, medical, social or other reason existed for the Church to continue prohibiting the use of modern birth control." The Pope disregarded these findings (on the ground that there was disagreement!), which started a quiet revolt (licit dissent) among the bishops of the Netherlands, Austria, Brazil, Mexico, West Germany, Japan, France, Scandinavia, Switzerland and the United States.
Although Zeno's sexual ethics were progressive, later Stoics, particularly Roman Stoics, became increasingly obsessed with the repression of all nonreproductive sex
as illicit pursuit of pleasure.
Although ongoing research has revealed strong evidence of sexual diversity in the animal kingdom, including homosexual, bisexual, and nonreproductive sex
, some Christians still do appeal to nature in defense of "sex for offspring only" Of course, we would expect very few Christians to defend polygamy by appealing to nature, even though something quite like that goes on in much of the animal kingdom.