Adenoviruses are nonenveloped
, double-stranded DNA viruses that are spread through respiratory, fecal-oral, and conjunctival routes.
(3) The viral particle is icosahedral, nonenveloped
, and 4050 nm in size.
Like other nonenveloped
viruses, adenovirus is not easily destroyed by many commonly used disinfectants.
Human papilloma viruses (HPVs) are a large family of small, nonenveloped
, double-stranded DNA viruses that are the cause of benign epithelial proliferations or warts.
Parvoviruses (family Parvoviridae) are small, nonenveloped
viruses of 25-30 nm in diameter, with an icosahedral capsid.
Rotavirus is nonenveloped
RNA viruses belonging to the family Reoviridae, genus Rotavirus; other members of the family Reoviridae include genera such as Orthoreovirus, Orbivirus, Coltivirus, Cypovirus, Phytoreovirus, Aquareovirus, Oryzavirus, Seadornavirus, Idoreovirus, and Mycoreovirus .
The family Parvoviridae includes small, nonenveloped
, icosahedral viruses with 5.3 kb single stranded DNA genome containing three open reading frames (ORFs); the first ORF, at the 5' end, encodes NS1, a nonstructural protein .
AdV are nonenveloped
viruses, 70-920 nm in diameter, and its replication initiates when the viral vertices bind to the host cell surface receptors (CAR or complement protein CD46) and cell internalization occurs by endocytosis.
The virus is round shaped and nonenveloped
, 23-25 nm in diameter with icosahedral structure.
Sapovirus and norovirus are small, nonenveloped
, single-stranded RNA viruses within the Caliciviridae family .
Teschen/Talfan disease is caused by the ubiquitous Teschovirus A (previously classified as Serogroup 1 porcine enterovirus), a nonenveloped
ssRNA(+) virus in the order Picornavirales, family Picornaviridae.
They are identified as nonenveloped
, positive-sense, single-stranded ribonucleic acid (RNA) genome of approximately 7.1 to 7.7 kb in size with a poly(A) tail at the 3'-end [8-10].