A rather rare finding in pulmonary imaging, the cavity formation may result from bacterial infections such as microaerophilic streptococci, viridans streptococci, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Haemophilus influenzae, Acinetobacter species, Escherichia coli, Legionella species, Fusobacterium necrophorum, Nocardia asteroides
, mycobacteria such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis, nontuberculous mycobacteria and Mycobacterium avium complex, fungi such as Cryptococcus neoformans, Coccidioides, Aspergillus and mucormycosis, parasites such as Paragonimus westermani and Echinococcus genus, and viral infections such as papilloma virus [1,2].
Various infections known to cause hypercalcemia include cytomegalic virus infection in AIDS, Nocardia asteroides
pericarditis, and Brucellosis.
is the most common causative agent of pulmonary nocardiosis, accounting for 85% of all cases .
(3,4) Other pathogens known to cause concretions on the lacrimal canaliculus include, Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger, Fusobacterium species, and Nocardia asteroides
. (5) Patients usually undergo successful resolution of symptoms following surgery and topical antibiotics.
Most cases of disseminated or pulmonary nocardiosis are associated with Nocardia asteroides
and have also been previously described to be associated with COP.
Pulmonary nocardiosis: A comparative analysis of Nocardia asteroides
and non-asteroides species.
for Nocardia asteroides
which caused the majority of human Nocardia infections.
Rare case of Nocardia asteroides
pericarditis in a human immunodeficiency virus-infected patient.
Epidemiology, bacteriology and control of an outbreak of Nocardia asteroides
infection on a liver unit.
Mauch, "Phylogeny of the genus Nocardia based on reassessed 16S rRNA gene sequences reveals underspeciation and division of strains classified as Nocardia asteroides
into three established species and two unnamed taxons," Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol.
terrae, Gordonia amictia (Ben607), and Nocardia asteroides
(Nast23) under laboratory conditions .