Nimbex

cisatracurium

(siss-a-tra-kyoor-ee-um) ,

Nimbex

(trade name)

Classification

Therapeutic: neuromuscular blocking agents nondepolarizing
Pregnancy Category: B

Indications

Induction of skeletal muscle paralysis and facilitation of intubation after induction of anesthesia in surgical procedures.Facilitation of compliance during mechanical ventilation.

Action

Prevents neuromuscular transmission by blocking the effect of acetylcholine at the myoneural junction. Has no analgesic or anxiolytic properties

Therapeutic effects

Skeletal muscle paralysis

Pharmacokinetics

Absorption: Following IV administration, absorption is essentially complete.
Distribution: Rapidly distributes into extracellular fluid;
Metabolism and Excretion: Undergoes pH-dependent breakdown, which is responsible for 80% of metabolism; remainder eliminated by liver and kidneys.
Half-life: 22–31 min;

Time/action profile

ROUTEONSETPEAKDURATION
IV2–3min3–5 min28–50 min

Contraindications/Precautions

Contraindicated in: Hypersensitivity; Pediatric: Products containing benzyl alcohol should be avoided in neonates.
Use Cautiously in: Dehydration or electrolyte abnormalities (should be corrected); Fractures or muscle spasm; Hyperthermia (↑ duration/intensity of paralysis); Shock; Extensive burns (may be more resistant to effects); Low plasma pseudocholinesterase levels (may be seen in association with anemia, dehydration, cholinesterase inhibitors/insecticides, severe liver disease, pregnancy, or hereditary predisposition); Obese patients ; Obstetric / Lactation: Safety not established (use only if benefit outweighs potential risk to fetus) Pediatric: Children <1 mo (safety and effectiveness not established)
Exercise Extreme Caution in: Neuromuscular diseases such as myasthenia gravis (small test dose may be used to assess response).

Adverse Reactions/Side Effects

Respiratory

  • bronchospasm

Dermatologic

  • rash

Miscellaneous

  • allergic reactions including anaphylaxis (life-threatening)

Interactions

Drug-Drug interaction

Intensity and duration of paralysis may be prolonged by pretreatment with succinylcholine, general anesthesia (inhalation), aminoglycosides, vancomycin, tetracyclines, polymyxin B, colistin, clindamycin, lidocaine, and other local anesthetics, lithium, quinidine, procainamide, beta-adrenergic blocking agents, potassium-losing diuretics, or magnesium.Higher infusion rates may be required and duration of action may be shortened in patients receiving long-term carbamazepine or phenytoin.

Route/Dosage

Intravenous (Adults and Children >12 yr) Initial intubating dose—0.15–0.2 mg/kg, additional maintenance doses of 0.03 mg/kg may be used 40–65 min later; Continuous infusion—1–3 mcg/kg/min.
Intravenous (Children 2–12 yr) Initial intubating dose—0.1–0.15 mg/kg; Continuous infusion—1–3 mcg/kg/min.
Intravenous (Infants 1–23 mo) Initial intubating dose—0.15 mg/kg

Availability (generic available)

Solution for injection: 2 mg/ml, 10 mg/ml

Nursing implications

Nursing assessment

  • Assess respiratory status continuously throughout therapy with cisatracurium. Use only to facilitate intubation or in patients already intubated.
  • Monitor neuromuscular response with a peripheral nerve stimulator intraoperatively. Paralysis is initially selective and usually occurs sequentially in the following muscles: levator muscles of eyelids, muscles of mastication, limb muscles, abdominal muscles, muscles of the glottis, intercostal muscles, and the diaphragm. Recovery of muscle function usually occurs in reverse order.
  • Monitor ECG, heart rate, and BP throughout administration.
  • Observe the patient for residual muscle weakness and respiratory distress during the recovery period.
  • Monitor infusion site frequently. If signs of tissue irritation or extravasation occur, discontinue and restart in another vein.
  • If overdose occurs, use peripheral nerve stimulator to determine the degree of neuromuscular blockade. Maintain airway patency and ventilation until recovery of normal respirations occurs.
    • Administration of anticholinesterase agents (neostigmine, pyridostigmine) may be used to antagonize the action of cisatracurium once the patient has demonstrated some spontaneous recovery from neuromuscular block. Atropine is usually administered prior to or concurrently with anticholinesterase agents to counteract the muscarinic effects.
    • Administration of fluids and vasopressors may be necessary to treat severe hypotension or shock.

Potential Nursing Diagnoses

Ineffective breathing pattern (Indications)
Impaired verbal communication (Side Effects)
Fear (Side Effects)

Implementation

  • high alert: Unplanned administration of a neuromuscular blocking agent instead of administration of the intended medication or administration of a neuromuscular blocking agent in the absence of ventilatory support has resulted in serious harm and death. Confusing similarities in packaging and insufficiently controlled access to these medications are often implicated in these medication errors.
  • Dose is titrated to patient response.
    • Cistracurium hasno effect on consciousness or pain threshold. Adequate anesthesia/analgesia should always be used when neuromuscular blocking agents are used as an adjunct to surgical procedures or when painful procedures are performed. Benzodiazepines and/or analgesics should be administered concurrently when prolonged neuromuscular blocker therapy is used for ventilator patients, because patient is awake and able to feel all sensations.
    • Not recommended for rapid sequence endotracheal intubation due to intermediate onset of action.
    • If eyes remain open throughout prolonged administration, protect corneas with artificial tears.
  • Intravenous Administration
  • May be administered undiluted.
  • Rate: Administer initial IV dose as a bolus over 1 min.
  • Intermittent Infusion: Maintenance dose is usually required 40–60min following initial dose.
    • Diluent: D5W, 0.9% NaCl, D5/0.9% NaCl., or D5/LR. Solutions diluted to 0.1 mg/mL in D5/W, 0.9% NaCl, or D5/0.9% NaCl may be stored at room temperature or in refrigeration for 24 hrs. Solutions dilutes 0.1–0.2 mg/ml in D5/LR may be stored for up to 24 hrs in refrigerator.
  • Continuous Infusion: Maintenance dose is administered by infusion..
  • Rate: 3 mcg/kg/min intially, then 1–2 mcg/kg/min. Titrate according to patient response.
  • Y-Site Compatibility: alemtuzumab, alfentanil, amikacin, aminocaproic acid, amiodarone, amphotericin B lipid complex, anidulafungin, argatroban, arsenic trioxide, azithromycin, aztreonam, bivalirudin, bleomycin, bumetanide, buprenorphine, butorphanol, calcium gluconate, carboplatin, carmustine, caspofungin, ceftaroline, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, chlorpromazine, ciprofloxacin, cisplatin, clindamycin, cyclophosphamide, cytarabine, dactinomycin, daptomycin, dexamethasone, dexmeditomidine, dexrazoxane, digoxin, diltiazem, diphenhydramine, dobutamine, docetaxel, dopamine, doxorubicin hydrochloride liposome, doxycycline, enalaprilat, epinephrine, epirubicin, eptifibatide, ertapenem, esmolol, etoposide, etoposide phosphate, famotidine, fenoldopam, fentanyl, fluconazole, fludarabine, fluorouracil, foscarnet, gemcitabine, gentamicin, granisetron, haloperidol, hetastarch, hydrocortisone sodium succinate, hydromorphone, idarubicin, ifosfamide, imipenem/cilastatin, irinotecan, isoproterenol, ketorolac, leucovorin, levofloxacin, lidocaine, linezolid, lorazepam, magnesium sulfate, mannitol, mechlorethamine, meperidine, methotrexate, metoclopramide, metronidazole, midazolam, milrinone, minocycline, mitoxantrone, morphine, mycophenolate, nafcillin, nalbuphine, nesiritide, nicardipine, nitroglycerin, norepinephrine, octreotide, ondansetron, oxaliplatin, oxytocin, paclitaxel, palonosetron, pamidronate, papaverine, pemetrexed, phenylephrine, potassium acetate, potassium chloride, procainamide, prochlorperazine, promethazine, quinupristin/dalfopristin, ranitidine, remifentanil, sodium acetate, sufentanil, tacrolimus, teniposide, theophylline, thiotepa, tigecycline, tirofiban, tobramycin, tolazoline, vancomycin, vasopressin, vinblastine, vincristine, vinorelbine, voriconazole, zidovudine, zolendronic acid
  • Y-Site Incompatibility: amphotericin B cholesteryl, cefoperazone, micafungin, pantoprazole

Patient/Family Teaching

  • Explain all procedures to patient receiving cisatracurium therapy without general anesthesia, because consciousness is not affected by cisatracurium alone.
  • Reassure patient that communication abilities will return as the medication wears off.

Evaluation/Desired Outcomes

  • Adequate suppression of the twitch response when tested with peripheral nerve stimulation and subsequent muscle paralysis.
  • Improved compliance during mechanical ventilation.

Nimbex

Cisatracurium Anesthesiology A neuromuscular blocker used during tracheal intubation, for skeletal muscular relaxation during surgery or mechanical ventilation
References in periodicals archive ?
of infringing a patent for the muscle-relaxant Nimbex by seeking approval to market a generic copy of the drug in the U.
based Sandoz, a unit of Switzerland's Novartis AG, from selling its version of Nimbex until the 1995 patent expires in 2012.
Table One: Sample list of neuromuscular blocking agents available in Canada Generic Name Common Trade Name atracurium Tracrium cisatracurium Nimbex mivacurium Mivacron pancuronium Pavulon succinylcholine ([dagger]) Quelicin ([dagger]) tubocurarine Tubarine vecuronium Norcuron ([dagger]) Depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent.
Treatment currently relies on off-label drugs such as Levaquin (levofloxacin), Nimbex (cisatracurium besylate) and generic drugs such as lorazepam and methylprednisolone.
The market is dominated by off-label treatment, such as Levaquin, Nimbex, and other generics such as methylprednisolone, clindamycin and lorazepam.
Nimbex is an intermediate-onset/intermediate-duration neuromuscular blocking agent used during general anesthesia for the facilitation of tracheal intubation, and to provide skeletal muscle relaxation during surgery or mechanical ventilation in the Intensive Care Unit.
In neurological patients, the Nimbex drip is most often used in the patient with uncontrolled intracranial pressure (ICP) or for ventilation management.