substantia nigra

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substantia

 [sub-stan´she-ah] (L.)
substance; used in anatomic nomenclature in naming various components of body tissues or structures.
substantia al´ba white matter.
substantia gelatino´sa the substance sheathing the posterior horn of the spinal cord and lining its central canal.
substantia gri´sea gray matter.
substantia ni´gra a dark layer of gray matter separating the tegmentum of the midbrain from the crus cerebri.
Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, Seventh Edition. © 2003 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved.

sub·stan·ti·a ni'g·ra

[TA]
a large cell mass, crescentic on transverse section, extending forward over the inner surface of the crus cerebri from the rostral border of the pons into the subthalamic region. It is composed of a dorsal stratum of closely spaced pigmented (that is, melanin-containing) cells, the pars compacta [TA]; a larger ventral region of widely scattered cells, the pars reticulata [TA]; and smaller less distinct regions, the pars lateralis [TA] and pars retrorubralis [TA]; the pars compacta in particular includes numerous cells that project forward to the striatum (caudate nucleus and putamen) and contain dopamine, which acts as the transmitter at their synaptic endings. Other, apparently nondopaminergic, cells of the substantia nigra project to a rostral part of the ventral nucleus of thalamus, to the middle layers of the superior colliculus, and to restricted parts of the reticular formation of the midbrain. The nigrostriatal projection is reciprocated by a massive striatonigral fiber system with multiple neurotransmitters, chief among which is γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). The substantia nigra receives smaller afferent projections from the subthalamic nucleus, the lateral segment of the globus pallidus, the dorsal nucleus of the raphe, and the pedunculopontine nucleus of the midbrain. The pars reticulata forms part of the output system for the striate body. The substantia n. is involved in the metabolic disturbances associated with Parkinson disease and Huntington disease.
Farlex Partner Medical Dictionary © Farlex 2012

substantia nigra

(nī′grə, nĭg′rə)
n.
A layer of large pigmented nerve cells in the midbrain that produce dopamine and whose destruction is associated with Parkinson's disease.
The American Heritage® Medical Dictionary Copyright © 2007, 2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

sub·stan·ti·a nigra

(sŭb-stan'shē-ă nī'gră) [TA]
A large cell mass, crescentic on transverse section, extending forward over the dorsal surface of the crus cerebri from the rostral border of the pons into the subthalamic region; it is composed of a dorsal stratum of closely spaced pigmented (i.e., melanin-containing) cells, the pars compacta, and a larger ventral region of widely scattered cells, the pars reticulata. The substantia nigra is involved in the metabolic disturbances associated with parkinsonism and Huntington disease.
Medical Dictionary for the Health Professions and Nursing © Farlex 2012

substantia nigra

A layer of grey matter (nerve cell bodies) containing pigmented nerve cells, that spreads throughout the white substance of the midbrain and receives fibres from the BASAL GANGLIA. DOPAMINE is produced in the substantia nigra, and loss of the pigment cells is a constant finding in PARKINSON'S DISEASE.
Collins Dictionary of Medicine © Robert M. Youngson 2004, 2005

Substantia nigra

One of the movement control centers of the brain.
Mentioned in: Parkinson Disease
Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine. Copyright 2008 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

Soemmerring,

Samuel Thomas von, German anatomist, 1755-1830.
ring of Soemmerring - a mass of lenticular fibers enclosed between the anterior and posterior portion of the lenticular capsule, leaving the pupillary area relatively free.
Soemmerring ganglion - a large cell mass extending forward over the dorsal surface of the crus cerebri from the rostral border of the pons into the subthalamic region. Synonym(s): substantia nigra
Soemmerring ligament - small fibers attaching the lacrimal gland to the periorbita.
Soemmerring muscle - a fasciculus occasionally passing from the thyrohyoid muscle to the isthmus of the thyroid gland. Synonym(s): levator muscle of thyroid gland
Soemmerring spot - an oval area of the sensory retina at the center of which is the central fovea, which contains only retinal cones. Synonym(s): macula retinae
Medical Eponyms © Farlex 2012
References in periodicals archive ?
Nigral overexpression of dominant negative TNF in the 6-OHDA rat model attenuated microglial activation and resulted in decreased neuronal degeneration and improved motor behavior [60, 98].
[MPP.sup.+]-induced nigral dopaminergic neuronal death is prevented by fibroblast growth factor IX through the upregulation of HO-1.
Recent data [53] demonstrated that exercise mediates increase in nigral TH expression, in aging rats.
It decreased the 6OHDA-induced loss of striatal TH fibers and nigral TH-immunoreactive neurons indicating that the neuroprotective effects may be due to its anti-inflammatory properties, or direct protection on nigral DA neurons [131].
Albright et al., "Nestinpositive/SOX2--negative cells mediate adult neurogenesis of nigral dopaminergic neurons in mice," Neuroscience Letters, 2016; 615: 50 DOI: 10.1016/j.neulet.2016.01.019
Parkinson's disease: a disorder due to nigral glutathione deficiency?
The control of firing pattern in nigral dopamine neurons: single spike firing.) Neurosci.
Oxidative stress regulated genes in nigral dopaminergic neuronal cells: correlation with the known pathology in Parkinson's disease.
Acetyl-L-carnitine and alpha-lipoic acid affect rotenone-induced damage in nigral dopaminergic neurons of rat brain, implication for Parkinson's disease therapy.
Um axonio nigral pode influenciar ambos os tipos de receptores no grupo de neuronios estriatais responsaveis pelo movimento muscular ativo agonista-antagonista, proporcionando o efeito da dopamina no musculo esqueletal durante o movimento de forma agonista (aceleracao da contracao) e antagonista (reducao do tonus) [12].