niacin

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niacin

 [ni´ah-sin]
a water-soluble vitamin of the B complex (see vitamin), found in various animal and plant tissues, especially liver, yeast, bran, peanuts, lean meats, fish, and poultry. A well balanced diet usually supplies more than the daily requirement. It is required by the body for the synthesis of the coenzymes NAD and NADP, which are required for many oxidation-reduction reactions. Deficiency of niacin produces pellagra, and administration of niacin is used to prevent and treat that condition. It is also used to treat hyperlipidemia. Called also nicotinic acid.

nic·o·tin·ic ac·id

(nik'ō-tin'ik as'id),
Part of the vitamin B complex; used in the prevention and treatment of pellagra, as a vasodilator, and in hyperlipidemia, in which it lowers cholesterol and acts an agent to elevate levels of high-density lipoprotein.

niacin

(nī′ə-sĭn)
n.
A white crystalline acid, C6H5NO2, of the vitamin B complex that is found in meat, fish, legumes, and whole-grain foods and is used to treat and prevent pellagra. Also called nicotinic acid.

niacin

A water-soluble “B-complex” vitamin integrated in the coenzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), an H+ acceptor for dehydrogenases which is formed in the body from tryptophan; it has been used in management of alcoholism, migraines, and to improve lipid profiles.
 
Deficiency
Anorexia, glossitis, headaches, insomnia, rash, depression, pseudodementia.
 
Toxicity
Skin flushing, arrhythmias, defects in glucose and urea metabolism, diarrhoea, nausea, gastric bleeding, headaches, itching, hepatic toxicity, psychotic reactions.

Normal
> 2.5 mg/24 hour in urine.

Sources
High-protein foods—e.g., fish, poultry, meats, liver, yeast, enriched bread, cereals.

Niacin decreased the risks of CAD by improving the lipid profile: decreased LDL-C by 15%, decreased TGs by 30%, decreased Apo B by 16%, decreased Lp(1) by 25%, and increased HDL-C by 20%; it is believed by some alternative health advocates to be useful for anxiety, arthritis, autism, depression, DM, hypoglycemia, and schizophrenia.

nic·o·tin·ic ac·id

(nik'ō-tin'ik as'id)
A part of the vitamin B3 complex; used in the prevention and treatment of pellagra, as a vasodilator, and as an HDL-raising agent; taken by some people in erroneous idea it will hide drug use in urine tests; such use can elicit GI complaints, dizziness, and loss of consciousness.
Synonym(s): niacin.

niacin

Nicotinamide, one of the B group of vitamins. Nicotinic acid. Niacin is present in liver, meat, grains and legumes. It is a constituent of coenzymes involved in oxidation-reduction reactions. Deficiency causes PELLAGRA. Niacin is being used in the treatment of high blood cholesterol levels. The drug is on the WHO official list.

niacin

see NICOTINIC ACID.

nic·o·tin·ic ac·id

(nik'ō-tin'ik as'id)
A part of the vitamin B3 complex; used in the prevention and treatment of pellagra, as a vasodilator, and as an agent to increase levels of high-density lipoproteins.
Synonym(s): niacin.
References in periodicals archive ?
Liu et al., "Niaspan reduces high-mobility group box 1/receptor for advanced glycation endproducts after stroke in type-1 diabetic rats," Neuroscience, vol.
According to the company, NIASPAN is marketed by AbbVie and is used with diet to reduce elevated TC, LDL-C, Apo B and TG levels and to increase HDL-C in patients with primary hyperlipidemia and mixed dyslipidemia.
where n=number of dissolution time points, [R.sub.t] = % drug dissolved from reference (Niaspan) formulation, [T.sub.t] = % drug dissolved from test ([A.sub.9]) formulation.
Although the increase in HDL was much greater in the Niaspan group than in the placebo group (25 percent versus 9.8 percent)> there was virtually no difference in the rates of fatal or nonfatal heart attack disease, stroke, hospitalization for acute coronary syndrome or revascularization.
Abbott also provided Niaspan, and Merck Pharmaceuticals provided Zocor.
The goal was to tolerate at least 1000 mg/day of Niaspan, for which 17 individuals qualified.
An extended-release version of niacin, Niaspan (the drug used in the head-to-head trial with Zetia), causes less flushing, says Dr.
If considering a switch from Zetia, which blocks the absorption of LDL "bad" cholesterol in the gut, to Niaspan, a B vitamin that raises HDL "good" cholesterol, new research supports the decision.
Despite the patent expiry of the two sales-leading coronary heart disease therapies by 2012 -- Sanofi-Aventis/Bristol-Myers Squibb's Plavix/Iscover and Pfizer's Lipitor -- the market entry of fixed-dose combinations with agents such as Abbott's Tricor/TriLipix, Solvay's Lipanthyl and Abbott's Niaspan will also offset the negative impact of generic erosion, according to the report.
(16.) Niaspan tablets (niacin extended-release tablets) [prescribing information].