Newton's laws of motion

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Newton's laws of motion

three laws that relate the forces and motions of bodies or objects (from the viewpoint of a fixed observer), first proposed by Isaac Newton. (1) An object will remain at rest or continue with constant velocity unless acted on by an unbalanced force. (2) The rate of change of momentum (or acceleration for a body/object of constant mass) is proportional to, and in the same direction as, the force applied to it (force = mass ×1 acceleration). (3) When two objects are in contact, the force applied by one object on the other is equal and opposite to that of the second object on the first (for every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction).

law

principle or rule
• Davis' law soft tissues' tendency to shorten and contract unless subject to frequent stretching

• Hilton's law a joint and its motive muscles (+ insertions) are all supplied by the same nerve

• Hook's law tissue strain (i.e. change in length) is directly proportional to applied compressive or stretching stress, so long as tissue elasticity (recoil ability) is not exceeded

• inverse-square law radiation intensity is inversely proportional to square of distance from radiation source (rad = κ1/cm2)

• law of excitation muscle tissue contracts in direct proportion to stimulating current strength

• Newton's first law; law of inertia an object at rest will not move until acted upon by a force; an object in motion will remain in motion at constant velocity until acted on by a net force

• Newton's second law; law of acceleration acceleration is directly proportional to applied force and indirectly proportional to object mass (i.e. force = mass × acceleration)

• Newton's third law; law of reciprocal actions to every action there is an equal and opposite reaction; i.e. a body is maintained at rest by equal and opposing forces

• Pascal's law a fluid at rest transmits pressure equally in every direction

• Poiseuille's law vascular blood flow is inversely proportional to fourth power of vessel radius (i.e. the narrower the vessel, the greater the resistance to flow)

• Starling's law the greater the stretch imposed on a circular muscle (e.g. muscle layer of an artery), the greater its reciprocal recoil and contraction

• Wolff's law bone function changes cause bone structure modification (see bone modelling)

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Contemporary physicists often make the same claim: "In Newtonian mechanics, the force acting on a body is considered to be the cause of the acceleration of the body.
The account is used to explain how the relationist should construe models of Newtonian mechanics in which absolute acceleration manifestly does not supervene on the relations; Ptolemaic and Copernican models, for example.
The improved study rests on analogies that Einsteinian mechanics and its underlying hyperbolic geometry share with Newtonian mechanics and its underlying Euclidean geometry.
Intended for biology and social science students, this two-semester textbook explains Newtonian mechanics, the physics of fluid, heat and thermodynamics, wave motion and sound, the concepts of electricity and magnetism, the properties of light, relativity, and quantum physics.
Students of civil engineering will always need to study Newtonian mechanics, even though that theory is no longer considered true without qualification, as it once was.
After Einstein first published his theory of relativity in 1905, astronomers quickly began to recognize its implications regarding gravitation and Newtonian mechanics and set about testing the theory's astronomical predictions using newly developed techniques in astronomical photography and spectroscopy.
Thus, one should refrain from evaluating these laws in the context of Newtonian mechanics, since the two systems of laws are grounded in different metaphysics.
A part of Friedman's thesis is that Kant scholars, in their eagerness apparently to defend the contemporary relevance of Kant, tend to be embarrassed, in view of twentieth-century developments in science, by the quaintness of Kant's total immersion in eighteenth-century Euclidean (physical) geometry and Newtonian mechanics.

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