Newton's laws of motion

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Newton's laws of motion

three laws that relate the forces and motions of bodies or objects (from the viewpoint of a fixed observer), first proposed by Isaac Newton. (1) An object will remain at rest or continue with constant velocity unless acted on by an unbalanced force. (2) The rate of change of momentum (or acceleration for a body/object of constant mass) is proportional to, and in the same direction as, the force applied to it (force = mass ×1 acceleration). (3) When two objects are in contact, the force applied by one object on the other is equal and opposite to that of the second object on the first (for every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction).


principle or rule
  • Davis' law soft tissues' tendency to shorten and contract unless subject to frequent stretching

  • Hilton's law a joint and its motive muscles (+ insertions) are all supplied by the same nerve

  • Hook's law tissue strain (i.e. change in length) is directly proportional to applied compressive or stretching stress, so long as tissue elasticity (recoil ability) is not exceeded

  • inverse-square law radiation intensity is inversely proportional to square of distance from radiation source (rad = κ1/cm2)

  • law of excitation muscle tissue contracts in direct proportion to stimulating current strength

  • Newton's first law; law of inertia an object at rest will not move until acted upon by a force; an object in motion will remain in motion at constant velocity until acted on by a net force

  • Newton's second law; law of acceleration acceleration is directly proportional to applied force and indirectly proportional to object mass (i.e. force = mass × acceleration)

  • Newton's third law; law of reciprocal actions to every action there is an equal and opposite reaction; i.e. a body is maintained at rest by equal and opposing forces

  • Pascal's law a fluid at rest transmits pressure equally in every direction

  • Poiseuille's law vascular blood flow is inversely proportional to fourth power of vessel radius (i.e. the narrower the vessel, the greater the resistance to flow)

  • Starling's law the greater the stretch imposed on a circular muscle (e.g. muscle layer of an artery), the greater its reciprocal recoil and contraction

  • Wolff's law bone function changes cause bone structure modification (see bone modelling)

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References in periodicals archive ?
In MOND, all ISs have finite mass, unlike in Newtonian dynamics where their mass is necessarily infinite (Milgrom 2004).
Therefore it is appropriate to describe UCD using only Newtonian dynamics.
The dynamical mass is larger by a factor of 4 to 5 when using Newtonian dynamics, and is reduced to a factor of 2 for MOND (Sanders 1999).
2004, A Departure from Newtonian Dynamics at Low Accelerations as an Explanation of the Mass-Discrepancy in Galactic Systems (Dark Matter in the Universe), 197
Finally, in 4 we study another interesting avenue for the origins of modified Newtonian dynamics based on Yang's Noncommutative Spacetime algebra involving a lower and upper scale [136] that has been revisited recently by us [134] in the context of holography and area-quantization in Cspaces (Clifford spaces); in the physics of D-branes and covariant Matrix models by [137] and within the context of Lie algebra stability by [48].
has been studied in [52] and its relationship to modified Newtonian dynamics and fractals by [54], [3].
10) that relates the maximal/minimal acceleration in terms of the minimal/large scales and which is compatible with Eddington-Dirac's large number coincidences we shall derive next the modified Newtonian dynamics of a test particle which emerges from the Born's Dual Phase Space Relativity principle.
The modified radial acceleration which encodes the modified Newtonian dynamics and which violates the equivalence principle (since the acceleration now depends on the mass of the test particle m) is
00] = 1 + 2U' yields the modified gravitational potential U' and modified Newtonian dynamics a' =[[partial derivative].
4 Modified Newtonian Dynamics resulting from Yang's Noncommutative Spacetime Algebra
We end this work with some relevant remarks about the impact of Yang's Noncommutative spacetime algebra on modified Newtonian dynamics.