Newton's laws of motion

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Newton's laws of motion

three laws that relate the forces and motions of bodies or objects (from the viewpoint of a fixed observer), first proposed by Isaac Newton. (1) An object will remain at rest or continue with constant velocity unless acted on by an unbalanced force. (2) The rate of change of momentum (or acceleration for a body/object of constant mass) is proportional to, and in the same direction as, the force applied to it (force = mass ×1 acceleration). (3) When two objects are in contact, the force applied by one object on the other is equal and opposite to that of the second object on the first (for every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction).

law

principle or rule
  • Davis' law soft tissues' tendency to shorten and contract unless subject to frequent stretching

  • Hilton's law a joint and its motive muscles (+ insertions) are all supplied by the same nerve

  • Hook's law tissue strain (i.e. change in length) is directly proportional to applied compressive or stretching stress, so long as tissue elasticity (recoil ability) is not exceeded

  • inverse-square law radiation intensity is inversely proportional to square of distance from radiation source (rad = κ1/cm2)

  • law of excitation muscle tissue contracts in direct proportion to stimulating current strength

  • Newton's first law; law of inertia an object at rest will not move until acted upon by a force; an object in motion will remain in motion at constant velocity until acted on by a net force

  • Newton's second law; law of acceleration acceleration is directly proportional to applied force and indirectly proportional to object mass (i.e. force = mass × acceleration)

  • Newton's third law; law of reciprocal actions to every action there is an equal and opposite reaction; i.e. a body is maintained at rest by equal and opposing forces

  • Pascal's law a fluid at rest transmits pressure equally in every direction

  • Poiseuille's law vascular blood flow is inversely proportional to fourth power of vessel radius (i.e. the narrower the vessel, the greater the resistance to flow)

  • Starling's law the greater the stretch imposed on a circular muscle (e.g. muscle layer of an artery), the greater its reciprocal recoil and contraction

  • Wolff's law bone function changes cause bone structure modification (see bone modelling)

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After two weeks of study on forces and Newton's laws, using language and examples consistent with both our textbook (Serway, Jewett, Wilson & Wilson, 2013) and our educational intent, over 60% of our students still gave the answer, "the normal force of the table on the book".
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99) WITH access to a large library in Moscow, Konstantin took on the task of educating himself in several areas of science, mainly physics, focussing on Isaac Newton's Laws of Motion.
Coverage includes ancient Greek atomic theory; Aristotle's systematic cosmology and the formal tendencies of matter; Galileo's heliocentric heresy and discovery of regular motion; Newton's laws of motion and his calculus for quantitatively describing change; celestial mechanics expressing the universality of Newton's laws; electricity and light; thermodynamics and the flow of time; and the relativity of space and time.
In 1846, the French mathematician Urbain Le Verrier (1811-1877) spent several months on complex calculations trying to explain the discrepancies between Uranus' observed orbit and the one predicted using Newton's laws of gravity.
Any other response will be a violation of Newton's laws of force and motion.
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Rimberg explains that scientists know that microscopic objects such as electrons obey the laws of quantum mechanics, while macroscopic objects obey Newton's laws.
And he was still enthusiastic about the program after having a giant cream pie smushed into his face - a prank that demonstrated all three of Newton's laws.
If the universe obeyed only Newton's laws of gravity, the solar system would be a lot less stable than it is.