Neurotransmitter

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neurotransmitter

 [noor″o-trans´mit-er]
a substance (e.g., norepinephrine, acetylcholine, dopamine) that is released from the axon terminal of a presynaptic neuron on excitation, and that travels across the synaptic cleft to either excite or inhibit the target cell.
Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, Seventh Edition. © 2003 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved.

neu·ro·trans·mit·ter

(nū'rō-trans'mit-ĕr),
Any specific chemical agent (including acetylcholine, five amines, four amino acids, two purines, and more than 28 peptides) released by a presynaptic cell, on excitation, that crosses the synapse to stimulate or inhibit the postsynaptic cell. More than one may be released at any given synapse. The neurotransmitters released by presynaptic cells may modulate transmitter release from presynaptic cells. Nitric oxide may be a retrograde neurotransmitter, released from postsynaptic cells, to act on presynaptic cells.
[neuro- + L. transmitto, to send across]
Farlex Partner Medical Dictionary © Farlex 2012

neurotransmitter

(no͝or′ō-trăns′mĭt-ər, -trănz′-, nyo͝or′-)
n.
A chemical substance, such as acetylcholine or dopamine, that transmits nerve impulses across a synapse.
The American Heritage® Medical Dictionary Copyright © 2007, 2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

neurotransmitter

Neurosynaptic transmitter Physiology Any of a number of small neuroregulating molecules–eg, catecholamines and acetylcholine, which are synthesized in the presynaptic terminals of neurons, stored in vesicles, and cause rapid and transient depolarization near their point of release in the synaptic cleft, where it stimulates production of either excitatory or inhibitory postsynaptic potentials; neurotransmission at synapses or neuromuscular junctions is due to binding of a neurotransmitter to its cognate receptor. See Amino acid neurotransmitter, Neuropeptide, Neuroregulator. Cf Hormone.
McGraw-Hill Concise Dictionary of Modern Medicine. © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

neu·ro·trans·mit·ter

(nūr'ō-trans'mit-ĕr)
Any specific chemical agent released by a presynaptic cell, on excitation, which crosses the synapse to stimulate or inhibit the postsynaptic cell.
[neuro- + L. transmitto, to send across]
Medical Dictionary for the Health Professions and Nursing © Farlex 2012

neurotransmitter

See TRANSMITTER SUBSTANCE.
Collins Dictionary of Biology, 3rd ed. © W. G. Hale, V. A. Saunders, J. P. Margham 2005

Neurotransmitter

A chemical in the brain that transmits messages between neurons, or nerve cells. Changes in the levels of certain neurotransmitters, such as serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine, are thought to be related to bipolar disorder.
Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine. Copyright 2008 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

neurotransmitter

A substance stored in the synaptic vesicles that is released when the axon terminal is excited by a nervous impulse. The substance then travels across the synaptic cleft to either excite or inhibit another neuron. This is accomplished by either decreasing the negativity of postsynaptic potentials (excitation), or increasing the negativity of postsynaptic potentials (inhibition). Common neurotransmitters include acetylcholine, dopamine, endorphins, adrenaline (epinephrine), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), amino acids, such as glutamate and glycine, noradrenaline (norepinephrine), serotonin and substance P. Common neurotransmitters in the retina are glutamate (the primary excitatory neurotransmitter), GABA (inhibitory), glycine (inhibitory), dopamine (excitatory) and acetylcholine (excitatory). See neuron; synapse.
Millodot: Dictionary of Optometry and Visual Science, 7th edition. © 2009 Butterworth-Heinemann

neu·ro·trans·mit·ter

(nūr'ō-trans'mit-ĕr)
Any specific chemical agent released by a presynaptic cell that, on excitation, crosses synapse to stimulate or inhibit the postsynaptic cell.
[neuro- + L. transmitto, to send across]
Medical Dictionary for the Dental Professions © Farlex 2012
References in periodicals archive ?
At the same time, there are some data on the functional roles of palmitoylation of different neurotransmitter receptors, indicating the involvement of this modification in the mechanisms underlying different types of normal and pathological behavior.
Neurotransmitter receptors are divided into two major classes: ligand-gated ion channel (LGIC) receptors and G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs).
Noble Egekwu, and team observed that transcripts predicting the same neurotransmitter receptors also were found in the synganglion of both species.
Pregnenolone is a modulator of neurotransmitter receptors, (24) with low levels being correlated to depression.
[16] Rat Neurotransmitter Receptors and Regulators PCR Array, http://www.sabiosciences.com/rt_pcr_product/HTML/PARN060A.html.
However, little information about the neurotransmitter receptors involved in the stellate ganglion synapses or in the brain of the squid was available.
(27) There is some suggestion that these protective effects are due to increased numbers of liver enzymes that metabolise drugs more rapidly, but for nicotine use at least, it may be that alteration in neurotransmitter receptors is the underlying mechanism.
Neurotransmitter receptors are not only expressed in target cell dendrites but also in axonal terminals, where these receptors regulate neurotransmitter release (see figure 1).
Previously, researchers knew that as the neuromuscular junction formed in a developing embryo, so-called positive factors cemented connections between incoming nerve fibers and dense clusters of neurotransmitter receptors facing them on muscle fibers.
Research in this field has accelerated as scientists have recognized that our brains can continue to form new connections - remain plastic - throughout life."Since we now know that Ritalin improves behavior through two specific types of neurotransmitter receptors, the finding could help in the development of better targeted drugs, with fewer side effects, to increase focus and learning," said Antonello Bonci, MD, principal investigator at the Ernest Gallo Clinic and Research Center and professor of neurology at UCSF.
Our preliminary study indicates that the methanol crude extract of Noni fruit showed significant affinity to the gamma-aminobutyric acid A (GABAa) inhibitory neurotransmitter receptors, and displayed 75% binding inhibition of the agonist radioligand [[.sup.3.H]] muscimol at a concentration of 100[micro]g/ml.
In brief, current medicines interact with specific neurotransmitter receptors on certain classes of neurons, altering the effects of a natural deficiency or excess in neurotransmitter action.