Since stiffness, viscosity, and force change with our muscle activation in order to interact with environments, decoding muscle activities, as well as joint angles, are important components for realizing neuroprosthesis
capable of controlling interaction force or stiffness.
Ring, "Effects of a foot drop neuroprosthesis
on functional abilities, social participation, and gait velocity," American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, vol.
These are used by noninvasive BCI systems to convert the mind or intention of a subject into a control message for certain device, such as a computer, a neuroprosthesis
, or a wheelchair [1-4].
sEMG patterns are used for neuromuscular biofeedback , robot-aided  training, and neurorehabilitation, as well as to control devices such as neuroprosthesis
based on functional electrical stimulation (FES), to mimic a neuromuscular function for both upper and lower extremities , or to enhance hand motor recovery when physical therapy alone is ineffective in stroke patients  or with spinal cord injury .
Kirsch, "Musculoskeletal model of trunk and hips for development of seated-posture-control neuroprosthesis
," The Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development, vol.
for retraining reaching and grasping functions in severe hemiplegic patients," Neuromodulation, vol.
In another study, the effect of neuroprosthesis
on a cerebral palsy child was conducted.
In this respect, the system is similar with the more sophisticated neuroprosthesis
developed by Ambrosini et al.
So, in 2013, a work was published, which demonstrated the effectiveness of BCI in a system controlling the neuroprosthesis
in a person with tetraplegia with relatively preserved sensory, emotional, and cognitive sphere .
Surgical technique for installing an eight-channel neuroprosthesis