In the same way, one can calculate the continuously displayed power yield [[eta].sub.power], as the product of current yield [[eta].sub.current] and voltage yield [[eta].sub.voltage],, yield expressing the effective use of power taking into account the voltage applied between two electrodes [U.sub.e] which is higher than necessary, theoretical Nernst potential
[[epsilon].sup.0] for discharge to the cathode of the metal corresponding to the galvanic deposition type:
A family of prepulse-sensitive current traces from this muscle fiber [ILLUSTRATION FOR FIGURE 2C OMITTED] indicates a reversal potential close to the expected Nernst potential
for Na ([approximately] +20 mV).
As a consequence of a membrane capacitance, and the diffusion of ions across a differentially permeable membrane, an equilibrium potential (or Nernst potential) is established (Nernst, 1888, 1889).
A closer look at the Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz Equation shows that when [P.sub.Na] and [P.sub.Cl] are nonzero, the resting potential will be less than that predicted by the Nernst potential for [K.sup.+].
[E.sub.j] is the Nernst potential or equilibrium potential (in V) for ion j
The batteries represent the electomotive force for each ion due to the unequal distribution of ions (i.e., Nernst potential or equilibrium potential).
The energy consumed by a neuron can be measured by the joule heat transformed from electric potential energy, so that we can calculate this energy consumption from membrane potential, Nernst potential, and ion current.
Leakage conductance and Nernst potential are set to be constants, so the trend of leakage current and power is similar with membrane potential.
where [C.sub.m] is membrane capacitance of a neuron, [V.sub.m] is membrane potential, [E.sub.Na] and [E.sub.K] are Nernst potentials of [Na.sup.+] and [K.sup.+], and [E.sub.l] is the potential while leakage current is zero.
At a particular moment, electric energy contained by a neuron is accumulated in membrane capacitor and equivalent batteries generated by Nernst potentials of ions, which is
where the last three terms are ion currents and Nernst potentials, respectively.