nephron

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nephron

 [nef´ron]
the structural and functional unit of the kidney, each nephron being capable of forming urine by itself. The nephron consists of the renal corpuscle, the proximal convoluted tubule, the descending and ascending limbs of the loop of Henle, the distal convoluted tubule, and the collecting tubule. Each kidney is an aggregation of about a million nephrons. The specific function of the nephron is to remove from the blood plasma certain end products of metabolism, such as urea, uric acid, and creatinine, and also any excess sodium, chloride, and potassium ions. By allowing for reabsorption of water and some electrolytes back into the blood, the nephron also plays a vital role in the maintenance of normal fluid balance in the body.

The nephron is a complex system of arterioles, capillaries, and tubules. Blood is brought to the nephron via the afferent arteriole. As the blood flows through the glomerulus (a network of capillaries), about one-fifth of the plasma is filtered through the glomerular membrane and collects in the malpighian (Bowman's) capsule, which encases the glomerulus. The fluid then passes through the proximal tubule, from there into the loop of Henle, then into the distal tubule, and finally into the collecting tubule. As the fluid is making its tortuous journey through these various tubules, most of its water and some of the solutes are reabsorbed into the blood via the peritubular capillaries. The water and solutes remaining in the tubules become urine.

neph·ron

(nef'ron),
A long, convoluted, tubular structure in the kidney, consisting of the renal corpuscle, the proximal tubule, the nephronic loop, and the distal tubule.
See also: uriniferous tubule.
[G. nephros, kidney]

nephron

(nĕf′rŏn)
n.
The functional excretory unit of the vertebrate kidney that regulates the amount of water in the body and filters wastes from the blood to produce urine.

nephron

The functional anatomic unit of the kidney, which consists of a glomerulus, convoluted tubules and a loop of Henle (nephron loop)

neph·ron

(nef'ron)
A long convoluted tubular structure in the kidney, consisting of the renal corpuscle, the proximal convoluted tubule, the nephronic loop, and the distal convoluted tubule.
[G. nephros, kidney]

nephron

the MALPIGHIAN BODY and the associated tubule of the vertebrate kidney a structure about 5 cm long in humans. In each human kidney there are about one million nephrons, making a total for both kidneys of around fifty miles of tubules. Inflammation of the tubules is called nephritis.

Nephron

The smallest functional unit of the kidney involved in the removal of waste products and excess water from the blood.
References in periodicals archive ?
This review discusses factors which influence nephron endowment and the complex relationship between nephron endowment and chronic kidney disease.
Once renal blood flow is restored, surviving nephrons are able to compensate by increasing their filtration rate (hyperfiltration) and, over time, their size (hypertrophy).
Housed within each nephron is a front-line filtration element called the glomerulus, a miniscule capillary coil.
(1-5) Furthermore, renal hypoplasia in the form of insufficient nephron endowment has been implicated in a substantial fraction of individuals with essential hypertension.
Of note, these segments differ between the cortical and juxtamedullary nephrons. Superficial cortical nephrons, with their short loops, do not have a thin ascending segment.
Examples include autosomal recessive PKD, a rare form of PKD, and other developmental problems that interfere with the normal formation of the nephrons. The signs of kidney disease in children vary.
Mesangial hypercellularity and a collapse of the vascular structure servicing the nephrons are observed.
A reduction of renal mass (i.e., a decrease in the number of nephrons) is followed by a decrease in renal function.
This life-sustaining filtration process is accomplished within minute units called nephrons. "There are thousands of these tiny structures within the kidney tissue," notes Francis Kallfelz, DVM, a professor of veterinary nutrition at Cornell University's College of Veterinary Medicine.
Short supply People lacking a full complement of blood-filtering nephrons in their kidneys at birth were found to be at increased risk of high blood pressure (163:19 *).
In the developing embryo, these early stem cells give rise to adult cells called nephrons, the blood filtration units of the kidneys.
London, Feb 2 (ANI): Scientists have discovered a cell in zebrafish that can be transplanted from one fish to another to regenerate nephrons and improve kidney function.