Stuart Reilly, GAT's senior archaeologist, said: "The Neolithic
, or the New Stone Age, was when farming was first practiced in Britain and settlement evidence from this period is typically represented by rubbish pits and post holes that are filled with burnt plant remains, stone tools and pieces of pottery.
Our previous excavation yielded pottery and a mass of finds, including five large roundhouses, showing Iron Age occupation, and there's evidence of Roman and medieval activity, but no-one realised the site had been occupied as far back as the Neolithic
- predating the construction of the Iron Age hill fort by several thousand years.
Today, many adults, especially in Europe, can eat a wide range of dairy foods, but genetic and computer simulation have shown that it is likely that most Neolithic
adults were lactose intolerant.
The development of agriculture facilitated extensive human population growths and activities, but whether these major expansions began before or after the Neolithic
era, a period during which humans started to grow crops and domesticate animals, remains controversial.
Some other people found a few fragments of what they thought was medieval pottery but I was quite excited to discover this neolithic
Dan Lee, project officer with the Orkney Research Centre for Archaeology, said the way the tomb was built "shows the concern Orcadian neolithic
society had for its ancestors".
A foreword from Eszter Banffy from the Archaeological Institute of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences and the editor's introduction describe the background to the undertaking: the original aims were to seek explanations for the transition to agriculture in the Hungarian plain and thus bridge the gap between the Mesolithic and the Neolithic
in the study area.
His main object of the study is the remains of a horse, found in the Neolithic
Monument of the Alikemek-Tepesi settlement.
Not only were the bones Neolithic
, but the dates showed the site had been used for over 1,000 years.
Before the construction work could begin, archaeologists were commissioned to carry out excavations at the site, where they were surprised to uncover the first Early Neolithic
multihouse settlement discovered in the region.
Painting Pots--Painting People: Late Neolithic
Ceramics in Ancient Mesopotamia
The excavations were at Gadachrili Gora and Shulaveris Gora, two Early Ceramic Neolithic
sites from 6000-4500 BC located about 50 kilometers south of Georgia's capital Tbilisi.