Neanderthal

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Neanderthal

An extinct modern Homo that lived between 230,000 and 22,000 years ago (the last known Neanderthals have been found in the Gravettian region of France). Neanderthals mostly lived in cold climates; their body proportions are similar to those of modern cold-adapted peoples: short and solid, with short limbs. Men averaged ±168 cm; their bones were thick and heavy, and showed signs of powerful muscle attachments. Neanderthals would have been quite strong by modern standards, and their skeletons show that they endured brutally hard lives.

Many Neanderthal tools and weapons have been found and they were more advanced than the tools of Homo erectus. Neanderthals were hunters, and the first Homo spp known to have buried their dead—the oldest known burial site is ±100,000 years old. Neanderthal skeletons are found throughout Europe and the Middle East. The “classic” western European Neanderthals were more robust than those found elsewhere. The average brain size, about 1450 cc, is larger than that of modern humans, but this correlated with their greater bulk; the cranial cavity is longer and lower than that of modern humans, with a marked bulge at the back.

Anatomy
Like Homo erectus, Neanderthals had a protruding jaw and receding forehead. The chin was weak, and the midfacial area also protrudes, a feature not found in Homo erectus or Homo sapiens, which may have been an adaptation to cold. Other minor anatomic differences from modern humans include peculiarities of the shoulder blade and pubic bone.
References in periodicals archive ?
Starting fires out of nothing but a few rocks is hard as it is, and the Neanderthals had to learn that without the use of the internet.
Modern humans share a common ancestor with Neanderthals, the extinct species that were our closest prehistoric relatives.
Wear marks in the hip joint of the La Chapelle-aux-Saints skeleton also pointed to the Neanderthals having an upright posture similar to that of modern humans.
The study titled, "Impact of climate change on the transition of Neanderthals to modern humans in Europe," was published Aug.
Further genetic analysis revealed that the Denisovan father of the hybrid individual had a little bit of Neanderthal ancestry himself as a result of his forebears mixing with Neanderthals at least 300 generations before he lived.
The black and red stencil markings, geometric shapes, handprints and a rough outline of animals, may very well have been the handiwork of Neanderthal cave dwellers.
The scientific establishment's reasoning was that the fossil evidence of Neanderthals contradicted the sacrosanct doctrine that creation was a perfect one-time act by God, an act that precluded the extinction of species, as well as the addition of new ones.
The disappearance of the Neanderthals, who are the closest evolutionary relatives to modern humans, is one of the most enduring mysteries in all of human evolution.
In The Last Neanderthal, Claire Cameron expertly intertwines Girl's and Rose's stories.
The head of the archeological team in Mazandaran, Hamed Vahdati-Nasab, told the Mehr news agency, "The cultural material providing evidence of a Neanderthal settlement was discovered when an archeology student from Marlik College of Noshahr was strolling in the mountains in the vicinity of Bandpey."
Shipman presents readers with an investigation of the extinction of Neanderthals as a species, arguing that the early domestication of wolf-dogs by modern human migrants to Europe provided the species with a distinct advantage in hunting large Ice Age mammals in a time when climate change made Neanderthals especially vulnerable.
Writing for general readers interested in science, Paabo recounts his 30-year effort to sequence the genome of Neanderthal Man and explains what he discovered about the hotly debated relationship between Neanderthals and the early humans who lived in the same regions for thousands of years.