Neanderthal


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Neanderthal

An extinct modern Homo that lived between 230,000 and 22,000 years ago (the last known Neanderthals have been found in the Gravettian region of France). Neanderthals mostly lived in cold climates; their body proportions are similar to those of modern cold-adapted peoples: short and solid, with short limbs. Men averaged ±168 cm; their bones were thick and heavy, and showed signs of powerful muscle attachments. Neanderthals would have been quite strong by modern standards, and their skeletons show that they endured brutally hard lives.

Many Neanderthal tools and weapons have been found and they were more advanced than the tools of Homo erectus. Neanderthals were hunters, and the first Homo spp known to have buried their dead—the oldest known burial site is ±100,000 years old. Neanderthal skeletons are found throughout Europe and the Middle East. The “classic” western European Neanderthals were more robust than those found elsewhere. The average brain size, about 1450 cc, is larger than that of modern humans, but this correlated with their greater bulk; the cranial cavity is longer and lower than that of modern humans, with a marked bulge at the back.

Anatomy
Like Homo erectus, Neanderthals had a protruding jaw and receding forehead. The chin was weak, and the midfacial area also protrudes, a feature not found in Homo erectus or Homo sapiens, which may have been an adaptation to cold. Other minor anatomic differences from modern humans include peculiarities of the shoulder blade and pubic bone.
References in periodicals archive ?
* They were also artists 6 The oldest cave paintings in the world, found in Spain and dated to be about 65,000 years old, are attributed to Neanderthals.
"There are different factors that could potentially explain these results, including strong selection to change the teeth of these hominins or their isolation from other Neanderthals found in mainland Europe.
This led them to conclude that Neanderthals possessed a lumbar region with a well-developed curvature.
The work revealed a correlation, one in which many of these cold periods or "stadials" coincided with the timing of near-complete absence of Neanderthal tools and artifacts.
Further genetic analysis revealed that the Denisovan father of the hybrid individual had a little bit of Neanderthal ancestry himself as a result of his forebears mixing with Neanderthals at least 300 generations before he lived.
Neanderthals had large brains as well, believed to be larger than a human-sized brain.
RECOUNTING the five years that it took to write The Last Neanderthal, Cameron says that she tossed out four unsatisfactory drafts before getting it right.
An international team from Portuguese, Spanish, Catalan, German, Austrian, and Italian research institutions has changed our thoughts about the death of Neanderthals.
In the present day, archaeologist Rosamund Gale believes Neanderthals recognized their interconnectivity, but the scientific world isn't buying into her ideas.
A visit to the site revealed that it contained a huge amount of evidence of Neanderthal activity.
Scientists isolated the parts of the modern human genetic blueprint that still contain Neanderthal remnants.
To date, the skeletal remains of more than 500 Neanderthal individuals are known, and surprisingly about half of these are children [30, page 17].