Typically, a naturalistic observation vehicle was equipped with devices that continuously monitor various aspects of driving behavior, including information about vehicle movements (e.g., acceleration and deceleration, position on the road, and driving speed), about the driver (e.g., eye, head and hand movements), and about the direct environment (e.g., time headway, traffic density, road, and weather conditions).
To test the influence of the observational frame and the cultural consistency across the frames, we calculated repeated measures MANOVA with the observational frame (naturalistic observation versus playing video) as the repeated measures factor, the mothers' cultural community as an independent variable, and the behavior types (body contact, body stimulation, face-to-face context, and object stimulation) as dependent variables.
A number of specific features of qualitative research that require additional ethical attention and awareness also need to be understood, including the following: 1) participants are frequently quite vulnerable and require protection because the data collection methods, such as in-depth interviews, can delve into personally and politically charged matters; 2) naturalistic observation can raise concerns regarding privacy and consent; 3) the potential for the identifiability of the results of this research may require extra efforts to maintain confidentiality.
So as to analyze the production of pointing gestures in real communicative spaces, and without restricting its variability in terms of the different functions that these gestures can take on, we opted for naturalistic observation and longitudinal data.
Given the time consuming and artificial nature of many of the preference assessments, recent investigations on the identification of potential reinforcers have moved into the natural setting using naturalistic observation techniques.