NTD


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neural tube defect (NTD)

any of a group of congenital malformations involving defects in the skull and spinal column that are caused primarily by the failure of the neural tube to close during embryonic development. In some instances the cleft results from an abnormal increase in cerebrospinal fluid pressure on the closed neural tube during the first trimester of development. The defect may occur at any point along the neural axis or extend the entire length of the spinal column, as in holorachischisis. The amount of deformity and disability depends on the degree of neural involvement, the most severe defect being complete cranioschisis, or the total absence of the skull and defective brain development. Other cerebral dysplasias resulting from the failure of the cranial end of the neural tube to fuse are meningoencephalocele and cranial meningocele. These defects, usually accompanied by severe mental and physical disorders, occur most often in the occipital region of the skull but may also occur in the frontal or basal regions. Most neural tube malformations are caused by incomplete fusion of one or more laminae of the vertebral column, with varying degrees of tissue protrusion and neural involvement. The two most common NTDs are spina bifida and anencephaly. Other NTDs include rachischisis, myelocele, myelomeningocele, and meningocele. In all of these conditions there is constant risk of rupture of the saclike protrusion and danger of meningeal infection. Often immediate surgical repair is necessary. Adequate folate levels during the first month after conception are important in preventing neural tube defects; the U.S. Public Health Service recommends that all women of childbearing age increase their folate intake to 400 mg per day. Many of the major neural tube defects can be determined prenatally by ultrasonic scanning of the uterus and by tests for the presence of elevated concentrations of alpha-fetoprotein levels in the amniotic fluid. Such diagnostic tests are preferably performed during the 14th to 16th week of gestation so that termination of the pregnancy is possible. See also anencephaly, Arnold-Chiari malformation, spina bifida cystica.

NTD

Neural tube defect, see there.
References in periodicals archive ?
Also, the addition of NTD into Eurofins' laboratory network further strengthens the company's pharmaceutical and clinical service offering and advances its development into a leading presence in the specialty clinical testing services for hospitals, clinicians and pharmaceutical companies.
If you or your child have a neural tube defect (NTD) for example spina bifida or hydrocephalus If you or your partner's family have a history of NTDs If you are overweight or obese If you have type-1 or type-2 diabetes.
In developing the guideline, evidence was evaluated regarding the 1) genetic, biologic, and sociodemographic determinants of blood folate concentrations in women of reproductive age; 2) threshold concentration of blood folate associated with lowest NTD risk; 3) response of blood folate concentrations to nutrition interventions; and 4) performance of laboratory assays for blood folate assessment.
We recorded total, relevant, and irrelevant words from the instructor's PowerPoint and from the notes of all participants in the NTD and NTP groups.
Total prevalence was calculated by dividing the total number of live births, still births affected by NTD by the total number of live births and still births for each year and expressing this as the rate per 1000 births.
Direct diagnosis of a spinal NTD is often difficult, and more commonly it is suspected when the following typical intracranial features are detected:
We find the data from our study methods to be credible because: (a) it is consistent with the ECLAMC South American data covering over 130 000 total births per year, where in 1999-2003, the overall NTD rate was 20.
The dietary and culinary principles inherent in it, such as the quest for harmony between human beings and nature, are reflections of traditional Chinese philosophy," said Zhong Lee, president of NTD.
Though research output on NTD has doubled from about 2,500 papers in 1992 to more than 5,000 papers in 2011, the numbers don't necessarily reflect a substantial increase in actual dedicated research.
12] (2-4) and other trace elements like copper and selenium is also reported to reduce the incidence of NTD, but generally they
governments, the World Bank and governments from neglected tropical disease (NTD)-endemic countries, gave its support on January 30 (local London time) to the London Declaration, a coordinated effort to eliminate 10 NTDs by the end of this decade.