The cardiovascular risks from celecoxib were no greater than those conferred by the other NSAIDs
Reduce the "risks of GI or cardiovascular problems by taking the lowest effective dose of an NSAID
for the shortest time possible," according to the article.
While this showed a 42% increased risk of exacerbation with NSAID
use, the authors noted that they saw sub-stantial heterogeneity across the studies.
Heart failure risk was roughly doubled by all NSAIDs
. All NSAID
regimens increased upper gastrointestinal complications (COX-2 inhibitors, diclofenac, ibuprofen, and naproxen.
Just six women who received NSAIDs
and eight who did not (3% and 10%) developed pulmonary edema (OR, 4.4; 95% CI, 1.5-13.1).
The study claims using NSAIDs
at a high dose for eight to 30 days was "particularly harmful" when people took more than 1200mg a day of ibuprofen, 750mg a day of naproxen and more than 25mg a day of rofecoxib.
The patients who used neither NSAIDs
nor LDA accounted for 49.0% (85 patients).
The fact they can be bought in supermarkets "further fuels the common misconception that NSAIDs
are harmless drugs that are safe for everyone", they said.
In the study, the researchers have gathered all research on the use of NSAIDs
in patients with heart disease.
"Short-term, limited use of NSAIDs
after an injury is safe in a healthy individual; my concern is more for women who are taking them long-term for an inflammatory disorder," says Dr.
Even taking NSAIDs
for less than three months increased the risk of developing chronic kidney disease by 18%.
In 2000, the results of the VIGOR (Vioxx gastrointestinal outcomes research) study were the first hint that CV events might be more common with selective cyclooxygenase (COX-2) inhibitors (coxibs) than with nonselective or "traditional" NSAIDs
(tNSAIDs), in this case, naproxen.