CXCR4

(redirected from NPYR)

CXCR4

A gene on chromosome 2q21 that encodes a seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor belonging to the CXC chemokine receptor family, which binds specifically to stromal cell-derived factor-1, transducing a signal by increasing intracellular calcium ions and enhancing MAPK1/MAPK3 activation. It acts as a receptor for extracellular ubiquitin, is involved in haematopoiesis and in cardiac ventricular septum formation, plays a role in gastrointestinal tract vascularisation by regulating vascular branching and/or remodelling in endothelial cells, may be involved in cerebellar development and, in the CNS, may mediate hippocampal-neuron survival.

Molecular pathology
CXCR4 acts with the CD4 to support HIV entry into cells; it is highly expressed in breast cancer cells. CXCR4 mutations cause WHIM (warts, hypogammaglobulinaemia, infections, and myelokathexis) syndrome.
Segen's Medical Dictionary. © 2012 Farlex, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
In meat, the most relevant nitrosamines are N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), N-nitrosopiperidine (NPIP), and N-nitrosopyrrolidine (NPYR).
A nitrosamine mix stock solution containing seven N-nitrosamines, namely N-nitroso-n-methylethylamine (NMEA), N-nitrosodi-n-butylamine (NDBA), N-nitrosodi-n-propylamine (NDPA), N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA), N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), N-nitrosopiperidine (NPIP) and N-nitrosopyrrolidine (NPYR), was purchased from Sigma Aldrich, Germany.
The chromatogram of the reference standard displayed the elution of NDMA, NPYR, NDEA and NPIP at a concentration of 0.1 mg/mL.
Pyrrolidine 1-nitroso- (NPYR) is an important hepatocellular carcinogen frequently present in the environment [44] it is found at six sampling sites most of which are sewerage drains (Table 9).
Nitrosamine carcinogenesis in 5120 rodents: chronic administration of sixteen different concentrations of NDEA, NBMA, NPYR and NPIP in the water of 4440 inbred rats, with parallel studies on NDEA alone of the effect of age of starting (3,6, or 20 weeks) and of species (rats, mice or hamsters).
Table 1 presents data on the toxicity and carcinogenicity of five volatile NA (NDMA = N-nitrosodimethylamine, NDEA = N-nitrosodiethylamine, NPYR = N-nitrosopyrrolidine, NPIP = N-nitrosopiperidine, NDBA = N-nitrosodibuthylamine) from the literature [2, 3].
Analysis of NPYR data for different sample preparation methods used (SFE, SPE, low-temperature vacuum distillation, and mineral oil distillation) showed significant variation [20].
Nitrosamine carcinogenesis in 5120 rodents: chronic administration of sixteen different concentrations of NDEA, NDMA, NPYR and NPIP in the water of 4440 inbred rats, with parallel studies on NDEA alone of the effect of age of starting (3, 6 or 20 weeks) and of species (rats, mice, or hamsters).