The size-selective predation (lower predation rate in larger white rockfish juveniles) observed in natural habitats during night (Kinoshita et al., 2014) could be explained by the development of antipredator behavior by juveniles through improvement in their schooling behavior as indicated by the decrease in NND at >30.3 mm TL.
Compared with data from tank experiments available for other fish species at similar body lengths and light conditions, NNDs of juvenile white rockfish from our study were greater.
The concentration of added nitrate in the NND incubations was 7.4 mM.
The NND treatment resulted in less C[O.sub.2] and methane production by 24 h (Table 2).
The VFA molar proportions (Table 3) revealed elevated acetate and decreased butyrate, by the NND treatment.
The N from NND resulted in a lower proportion of total N present as N[H.sub.3]-N (Figure 2) and lower N[H.sub.3]-N concentration (Table 4) after 24 h due to greater synthesis of MN from N[H.sub.3]-N.
According to Conrad and Wetter (1990) and Henry's law, [DELTA]G for the reaction of HC[O.sub.3] to C[H.sub.4] is -18.5 kcal/reaction (p(H2) = 137.7 Pa (Hungate, 1967; Smolenski and Robinson, 1988); p(C[H.sub.4]) = 3.1 x [10.sup.4] Pa (Hungate, 1967; Czerkawski and Breckenridge 1971); C(HC[O.sub.3.sup.-]) = 3.5 x [10.sup.-2] M (Turner and Hodgetts, 1955; Counotte et al., 1979)) and [DELTA]G for the reaction of N[O.sub.3.sup.-] to N[H.sub.4.sup.+] is -103.5 kcal/reaction (p([H.sub.2]) = 137.7 Pa; C(N[H.sub.3]-N) = 1.01 x [10.sup.-2] M (Wohlt et al., 1976); C(N[O.sub.3.sup.-]) = 1.5 x [10.sup.-4] M (Table 4, N[O.sub.3.sup.-] concentration of NND)).
The NND treatment resulted in less and slower total net gas production (Figure 1 and Table 2).
Hydrogen concentration was elevated due to NND (Table 2).