expression has also been found to increase GABAergic and glycinergic transmission, while NRXN[beta] has been shown to decrease [GABA.sub.A]R-mediated transmission through extracellular binding to [GABA.sub.A][alpha]R1 [113, 114].
So extending the assumption of X chromosome evolution from autosome we can assume that paralog of X-linked genes must be on autosome and should be involved in the same disorder; like ARHGEF6 (X chromosome) has its paralog ARHGEF3 and ARHGEF4 on autosome; similarly NLGN3, NLGN4 on X -chromosome has paralog NLGN1 and NLGN2
For example, some SAMs can bind partners tethered to the same membrane in a side-by-side fashion forming a "cis-complex." Such cis-protein assemblies are often regulatory in nature, altering, binding, or forming an essential precomplex onto which a third partner can dock to yield the final trans-synaptic bridge, for example, MDGA1 binding to neuroligin 2 (NLGN2) [16, 17], the CNTNAP2-CNTN2 tripartite system , and SALM4 binding to SALM3 which inhibits trans-synaptic SALM3-LAR adhesion .
Members of the same SAM family can also have dramatically different roles; NLGN2 is found exclusively at inhibitory synapses, while NLGNl is found predominantly at excitatory synapses .
In contrast, at inhibitory synapses, neurexins form a trans-synaptic interaction with NLGN2 promoting inhibitory synapse development .
Qin et al., "Identification and functional characterization of rare mutations of the neuroligin-2 gene (NLGN2
) associated with schizophrenia," Human Molecular Genetics, vol.
Further to this, 12-week curcumin treatment markedly upregulated genes implicated in synaptic transmission and memory formation, including Adcyl, Kit, and LPL in the hippocampus and Shank3, Cip98, Snip, and Nlgn2
in the cortex.