Phonics instruction has been shown to be beneficial to all students, but with stronger effects for students from low socioeconomic backgrounds (NICHHD
, 2000) and children who begin school with low levels of phonological awareness and pre-literacy skills, who are disproportionately from low socioeconomic backgrounds (Footman, Francis, Fletcher, Schatschneider, & Mehta, 1998; Savage, Carless, & Erten, 2009; Sonnenschein, Stapleton, & Benson, 2010; Xue & Meisels, 2004).
Phase II clinical trials are being coordinated by NICHHD
and the World Health Organization in Geneva, Switzerland.
Parer found "not a good correlation" between his five-tier system and the NICHHD
three-tier system, he said.
The most common federal funding sources among the published family medicine studies were the Public Health Service (18.9%) and the Department of Health and Human Services (18.9%); for general internal medicine research, the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research or its forerunner, the National Center for Health Services Research and Health Care Technology Assessment (16.7%); in obstetrics and gynecology, the National Institutes of Health (46.1%); and in pediatrics, the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHHD) (25.5%).
The NICHHD primary programs are "reproduction and population studies, perinatal biology and infant mortality, congenital defects, developmental biology and nutrition, human learning and behavior, and mental [retardation,".sup.36(p 60)] and do not therefore favor pediatrics over obstetrics and gynecology or family medicine.
Scientists at NICHHD
collaborated with others in Nepal, Sweden and France during a pilot study and a subsequent clinical trial of the NICHHD-developed vaccine.
One commonly examined strategy is repeated reading of passages (e.g., LeVasseur, Macaruso, & Shankweiler, 2008; Martens et al., 2007; Mercer, Campbell, Miller, Mercer, & Lane, 2000; NICHHD, 2000; Vandenberg, Boon, Fore, & Bender, 2008).
Results of most recent reviews or syntheses have suggested that repeated reading improves reading fluency with moderate to large effect sizes on nontransfer passages for students with and without disabilities (Chard, Vaughn, & Tyler, 2002; Meyer & Felton, 1999; Morgan & Sideridis, 2006; NICHHD, 2000; Therrien, 2004; Therrien, Wickstrom, & Jones, 2006; Wexler, Vaughn, Edmonds, & Reutebuch, 2008), but resulted in less robust effects on transfer passages (Ardoin, Eckert, & Cole, 2008; Therrien).
This was in support of National Research Council (NRC, 1998) and National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHHD
2000) that also recommended such approach to reading instruction for students.
In any case, both ACOG and nursing organizations have adopted the NICHHD
Student progress was measured, using the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy (DIBELS) reading assessment (Good & Kaminski, 2003), which was designed to assess the five major skill areas in early reading identified by the National Reading Panel (NICHHD
, 2000) and the National Research Panel (Snow et al., 1998) including phonemic awareness, phonics, vocabulary, fluency, and comprehension.
Read, who is a medical officer in the Pediatric, Adolescent, and Maternal AIDS Branch of the NICHHD
, and her associates looked at the potential costs and outcomes of this strategy in the United States.