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a transcription factor that regulates cytokine gene transcription. NF-κB is a target of glucocorticoid action.


A pleiotropic transcription factor present in most cell types, which is involved in many biological processes such as inflammation, immunity, differentiation, cell growth, tumourigenesis and apoptosis. It forms a homo- or heterodimeric complex with Rel-like domain-containing proteins RELA/p65, RELB, NFKB1/p105, NFKB1/p50, REL and NFKB2/p52, binding the kappa-B sites in the DNA of their target genes. Individual dimers have distinct preferences for different kappa-B sites, binding with distinct affinity and specificity; different dimer combinations act as transcriptional activators or repressors.

NF-kappaB is controlled by various mechanisms of post-translational modification and subcellular compartmentalisation, as well as by interactions with other cofactors or co-repressors. NF-kappaB complexes are held in the cytoplasm in an inactive state, complexed with members of the NF-kappaB inhibitor (I-kappa-B) family. In conventional activation, I-kappa-B is phosphorylated by I-kappa-B kinases (IKKs) in response to different activators and subsequently degraded, liberating the active NF-kappaB complex, which translocates to the nucleus.
References in periodicals archive ?
Hydrogen sulfide ameliorates chronic renal failure in rats by inhibiting apoptosis and inflammation through ROS/MAPK and NF-kappaB signaling pathways.
The methanol fractions of black raspberries, which contain the anthocyanin cyanidin-3-rutinoside, were found to time--and dose-dependently inhibit the UV effects on NF-kappaB and AP-1, unlike the other berries, which do not contain cyanidin-3-rutinoside.
P53 is a central hub in the cellular growth pathway and cooperates with other genes and transcription factors, including Myc, PTEN, NF-kappaB, FG, and TGFB.
Raison and colleagues found that stress-induced spikes in interleukin-6 and NF-kappaB DNA-binding were greater in patients with higher baseline levels of depression and higher levels of early life stress (Am J Psychiatry.
They inhibit the joint synovial fibroblast pro-inflammatory factor NF-kappaB that is implicated in synovial proliferation, inflammation, and joint destruction, and polarize pro-inflammatory monocytes and T cells to anti-inflammatory states.
The feasibility of monitoring NF-kappaB associated cytokines: TNF-alpha, IL-1alpha, IL-6, and IL-8 in whole saliva for the malignant transformation of oral lichen planus.
Dietary Apigenin Exerts Immune-Regulatory Activity in Vivo by Reducing NF-kappaB Activity, Halting Leukocyte Infiltration and Restoring Normal Metabolic Function.
Elevated expression of NF-kappaB in oral submucous fibrosis--evidence for NF-kappaB induction by safrole in human buccal mucosal fibroblasts.
Suppression of adhesion molecule expression by phenanthrene-containing extract of bulbils of Chinese Yam in vascular smooth muscle cells through inhibition of MAPK, Akt and NF-kappaB.
Andorfer B, Kieseier BC, Mathey E, Armati P Pollard J, Oka N, Hartung HP Expression and distribution of transcription factor NF-kappaB and inhibitor IkappaBin the inflamed peripheral nervous system.
She said: "Our findings have, for the first time, uncovered the effect of targeting the NF-kappaB protein in bowel cancer cells.