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a transcription factor that regulates cytokine gene transcription. NF-κB is a target of glucocorticoid action.


A pleiotropic transcription factor present in most cell types, which is involved in many biological processes such as inflammation, immunity, differentiation, cell growth, tumourigenesis and apoptosis. It forms a homo- or heterodimeric complex with Rel-like domain-containing proteins RELA/p65, RELB, NFKB1/p105, NFKB1/p50, REL and NFKB2/p52, binding the kappa-B sites in the DNA of their target genes. Individual dimers have distinct preferences for different kappa-B sites, binding with distinct affinity and specificity; different dimer combinations act as transcriptional activators or repressors.

NF-kappaB is controlled by various mechanisms of post-translational modification and subcellular compartmentalisation, as well as by interactions with other cofactors or co-repressors. NF-kappaB complexes are held in the cytoplasm in an inactive state, complexed with members of the NF-kappaB inhibitor (I-kappa-B) family. In conventional activation, I-kappa-B is phosphorylated by I-kappa-B kinases (IKKs) in response to different activators and subsequently degraded, liberating the active NF-kappaB complex, which translocates to the nucleus.
References in periodicals archive ?
Identification and characterization of MAVS, a mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein that activates NF-kappaB and IRF3.
Researchers from the school's Institute of Life Science investigated curcumin, the active compound in turmeric, for its ability to specifically block the protein NF-kappaB.
The Swansea-based GI tract Molecular Pathology Group, led by Professor John Baxter and Dr Gareth Jenkins, have been testing a range of dietary factors on a protein called NF-kappaB, which helps cancer cells to survive once they start to grow.
The drug is thought to help the body prevent a molecule associated with some breast cancers, NF-kappaB, becoming overactive and then fuelling the growth of cancer cells.
The research group has been investigating curcumin's exceptional properties to curb excessive activation of NF-kappaB, a widely-known agent that controls many genes that cause inflammation.
Signalling, inflammation and arthritis: NF-kappaB and its relevance to arthritis and inflammation.
The researchers in this study specifically inactivated the NF-kappaB inflammatory pathway to test its effect on breast cancer--not an easy task, as this pathway is involved in several functions that actually helped keep the mice alive.
Elevated activity of CK2 potentiates multiple oncogenic pathways including EGFR-regulated pathways, Akt and WNT signaling cascades, NF-kappaB transcription, angiogenesis, Hsp90 chaperone pathway and the DNA damage response.
The research specifically examines the roles of the p53 tumour suppressor and the oncogene, NF-kappaB.
Michael Irwin of the University of California, Los Angeles and colleagues tested levels of a protein called NF-kappaB in the blood of 14 healthy volunteers, seven men and seven women.
Selective involvement of reactive oxygen intermediates in platelet-activating factor-mediated activation of NF-kappaB.