(26) demonstrated that both K-RAS and N-RAS
mutations coexist in 2 patients with seminomatous tumors and another with nonseminomatous tumors.
The specimens were reevaluated to detect the mutant oncogenes on k-ras and n-ras
because the biopsy indicated mucinous adenocarcinoma.
Wang et al., "Differential effects of oncogenic K-Ras and N-Ras
on proliferation, differentiation and tumor progression in the colon," Nature Genetics, vol.
Probes used to analyze mutation include IDH1 (R132X), PIK3CA (exon 9 E542K, exon 9 E545K, exon 20 H1047R), Kras (codon 12/13, codon 59/61, codon 117, codon 146), N-ras
(codon 12/13, codon 59/61), Braf (V600E), and EGFR (exon 18 G719S, G719A, G719C, exon 19 deletion, exon 20 S768I, T790M, exon 21 L858R, L868I).
Advanced evaluation of the pathology specimens revealed wild-type K-RAS, wild-type N-RAS
, V600E mutant BRAF, and microsatellite-stable adenocarcinoma of the colon in the same time, with the medication of the third dose of the FOLFOX + bevacizumab regimen.
There are three known human Ras protooncogenes H-Ras, N-Ras
, and K-Ras which can activate the downstream RAF-MEK-ERK signalling pathways important for cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, and cell differentiation .
Differential effects of oncogenic KRas and N-Ras
on proliferation, differentiation and tumor progression in the colon.
(25) Akalin and Incesu (26) demonstrated that the carvacrol has cytotoxic effect on H-ras transformed 5RP7 and N-ras
transformed CO25 cell lines upon time- and concentrations.
RAS mutations were detected only in H-RAS and K-RAS genes (not in N-RAS
genes), apparently representing an alternative genetic event to RET mutations in sporadic MTC.
Jones et al., "Wild-Type H- and N-Ras
Promote Mutant K-Ras-Driven Tumorigenesis by Modulating the DNA Damage Response," Cancer Cell, vol.
Gupta et al., "Direct evidence for the contribution of activated N-ras
and K-ras oncogenes to increased intrinsic radiation resistance in human tumor cell lines," Cancer Research, vol.
Various forms of Ras: H-ras, N-ras
and K-ras transmit signals independently of the interaction with different effectors and promoters .