HRAS

(redirected from N-RAS)

HRAS

A gene on chromosome 11p15.5 belonging to the Ras oncogene family, the protein products of which bind GTP and GDP, have intrinsic GTPase activity, and play key roles in signal transduction. HRAS cycles between de- and re-palmitoylation, a reaction that regulates its rapid exchange between the plasma membrane and the Golgi apparatus.

Molecular pathology
Defects in HRAS are associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer, Hürthle cell carcinoma of thyroid, and oral squamous cell carcinoma. HRAS mutations cause faciocutaneoskeletal syndrome and congenital myopathy with excess of muscle spindles—a variant of Costello syndrome.
References in periodicals archive ?
(26) demonstrated that both K-RAS and N-RAS mutations coexist in 2 patients with seminomatous tumors and another with nonseminomatous tumors.
The specimens were reevaluated to detect the mutant oncogenes on k-ras and n-ras because the biopsy indicated mucinous adenocarcinoma.
Wang et al., "Differential effects of oncogenic K-Ras and N-Ras on proliferation, differentiation and tumor progression in the colon," Nature Genetics, vol.
Probes used to analyze mutation include IDH1 (R132X), PIK3CA (exon 9 E542K, exon 9 E545K, exon 20 H1047R), Kras (codon 12/13, codon 59/61, codon 117, codon 146), N-ras (codon 12/13, codon 59/61), Braf (V600E), and EGFR (exon 18 G719S, G719A, G719C, exon 19 deletion, exon 20 S768I, T790M, exon 21 L858R, L868I).
Advanced evaluation of the pathology specimens revealed wild-type K-RAS, wild-type N-RAS, V600E mutant BRAF, and microsatellite-stable adenocarcinoma of the colon in the same time, with the medication of the third dose of the FOLFOX + bevacizumab regimen.
There are three known human Ras protooncogenes H-Ras, N-Ras, and K-Ras which can activate the downstream RAF-MEK-ERK signalling pathways important for cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, and cell differentiation [24].
Differential effects of oncogenic KRas and N-Ras on proliferation, differentiation and tumor progression in the colon.
(25) Akalin and Incesu (26) demonstrated that the carvacrol has cytotoxic effect on H-ras transformed 5RP7 and N-ras transformed CO25 cell lines upon time- and concentrations.
RAS mutations were detected only in H-RAS and K-RAS genes (not in N-RAS genes), apparently representing an alternative genetic event to RET mutations in sporadic MTC.
Jones et al., "Wild-Type H- and N-Ras Promote Mutant K-Ras-Driven Tumorigenesis by Modulating the DNA Damage Response," Cancer Cell, vol.
Gupta et al., "Direct evidence for the contribution of activated N-ras and K-ras oncogenes to increased intrinsic radiation resistance in human tumor cell lines," Cancer Research, vol.
Various forms of Ras: H-ras, N-ras and K-ras transmit signals independently of the interaction with different effectors and promoters [3].