Key words: Associational defense; Coccinella; Galerucella calmariensis; herbivory; Lythrum salicaria; Myrica gale; Nanophyes marmoratus; plant reproduction; predation; trophic cascade; trophic interaction.
In this study, we examine how the presence of the aromatic low shrub sweet gale (Myrica gale) and of predatory lady beetles affect herbivore damage and reproductive output in a purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria) population in northern Sweden.
Myrica gale occurs on the upper part of the shore, in front of and under A.
Much of the basin is occupied by black spruce/Sphagnum bog and associated shrubs such as juniper (Juniperus communis), ericads, and sweet gale (Myrica gale).
Macrofossil assemblages in this zone are characterized by Picea, Juniperus, Betula glandulosa, Myrica gale, Salix, Vaccinium, Empetrum, Arctostaphylos, and, at Splan Pond (Fig.