Mycobacterium kansasii


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Related to Mycobacterium kansasii: Mycobacterium fortuitum

My·co·bac·te·ri·um kan·sa·s'i·i

a bacterial species causing a tuberculosislike pulmonary disease; found to cause rare infections (and usually lesions) in spinal fluid, spleen, liver, pancreas, testes, hip joint, knee joint, finger, wrist, and lymph nodes.

Mycobacterium kansasii

A mycobacterium that may involve any body site, but primarily the lungs; dissemination is rare and is typically an opportunistic infection in immunocompromised (e.g., AIDS) or immuosuppressed (e.g., post-transplant) hosts.
 
Clinical findings
Healthy host
• Pulmonary—Cough, sputum, weight loss, SOB, chest pain haemoptysis, fever or sweats.
• Cutaneous—Sporotrichosis-like with local lymphatic spread; lesions include nodules, pustules, verrucous lesions, erythematous plaques, abscesses, and ulcers.

Immunocompromised host
• Appears late in HIV disease, most commonly affecting the lungs, accompanied by fever, chills, night sweats, productive or nonproductive cough, weight loss, fatigue, dyspnoea, and chest pain. Nearly 20% of patients with HIV and M kansasii infection eventually develop disseminated disease.
• M kansasii meningitis, like M tuberculosis meningitis, has a high mortality rate despite appropriate antibiotic therapy.
• M kansasii bacteremia, pericarditis with cardiac tamponade, oral ulcers, chronic sinusitis, osteomyelitis, have been reported in AIDS patients.
• Disseminated M kansasii infection also occurs in other immunocompromised hosts (e.g., with myelodysplastic syndrome, haemodialysis) in whom cutaneous involvemenet has clinically (e.g., cellulitis, seroma) and histologically (e.g., absence of granuloma) aypical, which may delay the diagnosis.

Epidemiology
Traditionally regarded as an infection of those with a higher income and standard of living, it also affects those in lower socioeconomic strata.

Frequency
2.4 cases/105/year in the general population; 115 cases/105/year in those with HIV infection; 647 cases/105/year in those with AIDS.
 
Management
Rifampin, rifabutin, ethambutol, ethionamide, amikacin, streptomycin, clarithromycin, sulfamethoxazole, ciprofloxacin; a three-agent regimen is recommended.

Mycobacterium kansasii

Infectious disease A mycobacterium that may involve any body site, but primarily lungs; dissemination is rare and associated with immunocompromise or immuosuppression Management INH, ethambutol; antibiotic resistance is uncommon

My·co·bac·te·ri·um kan·sasi·i

(mī'kō-bak-tēr'ē-ŭm kan-zas'ē-ī)
A bacterial species causing a tuberculosislike pulmonary disease; also found to cause infections (and usually lesions) in meninges, spleen, liver, pancreas, testes, hip joint, knee joint, finger, wrist, and lymph nodes.
References in periodicals archive ?
Witzig, "Mycobacterium kansasii in HIV patients: clarithromycin and antiretroviral effects," International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, vol.
Hanoy et al., "Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome secondary to Mycobacterium kansasii infection in a kidney transplant recipient," American Journal of Transplantation, vol.
Hofing, "Mycobacterium kansasii infection in squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus sciureus)," Journal of Medical Primatology, vol.
In 1999, only 50 cases of Mycobacterium kansasii septic arthritis were described, (3) and another review in 2012 discussed four cases of M.
Hoarseness due to Mycobacterium kansasii. J Laryngol Otol 2009;123(5):569-71.
In patients with Mycobacterium kansasii, the frequency of cavitation is high (87% to 96%) and cavitation is visible even on plain radiographs.
In September 1991, a case report([dagger]) was sent to ODH by an infections disease specialist who was treating a 55-year-old sandblaster with advanced silicosis and an associated Mycobacterium kansasii infection([sections]) (2).
Illustrative of this likelihood are the fidnings of Levine and Chaisson,[11] who noted that more than 50% of patients with advanced HIV infection who have Mycobacterium kansasii are also infected with a second pathogen.
(9.) Kuznetcova TI, Sauty A, Herbort CP Uveitis with occult choroiditis due to Mycobacterium kansasii: limitations of interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA) tests (case report and mini-review on ocular non-tuberculous mycobacteria and IGRA cross-reactivity).
Bishara et al., "Clinical and radiological features of Mycobacterium kansasii infection and Mycobacterium simiae infection," Respiratory Medicine, vol.
Besides MA, there are 4 different types of NTM that could also cause lung disease including mycobacterium kansasii, mycobacterium abscessus, mycobacterium xenopi, and mycobacterium malmoense [5, 6].
tuberculosis , Mycobacterium fortuitum , Mycobacterium kansasii , Mycobacterium chelonae, Mycobacterium avium -intracellulare, and Mycobacterium marinum, which could affect skin to cause the granulomatous diseases and smear acid-fast staining positivity.

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