Mycobacterium


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Mycobacterium

 [mi″ko-bak-tēr´e-um]
a genus of gram-positive, aerobic, acid-fast bacteria, occurring as slightly curved or straight rods. It contains many species, including the highly pathogenic organisms that cause tuberculosis (M. tuberculo´sis) and leprosy (M. lep´rae). M. a´vium causes tuberculosis in birds and pigs and pulmonary disease in humans. M. bo´vis is the bovine tubercle bacillus and can cause tuberculosis in humans who drink infected milk (strict testing of cattle makes this uncommon in developed countries); an attenuated strain is used to prepare BCG vaccine. M. chelo´nae is an opportunistic pathogen that causes synovial lesions, gluteal abscesses, and gross lesions in various organs. M. fortu´itum causes lesions of the lung, bone, or soft tissue following trauma. M. haemo´philum causes skin lesions. M. ho´minis is a common inhabitant of the vagina and cervix and causes infections of the male and female reproductive tracts, as well as respiratory disease and pharyngitis. M. intracellula´re occasionally causes chronic pulmonary disease in adults and lymph node infection in children. M. kansa´sii causes a tuberculosis-like disease. M. mari´num (also known as M. bal´nei) is the agent of swimming pool granuloma.

mycobacterium

 [mi″ko-bak-tē″re-um] (L.)
1. an individual organism of the genus Mycobacterium.
2. a slender, acid-fast microorganism resembling the bacillus that causes tuberculosis.
nontuberculous mycobacteria mycobacteria other than M. tuberculosis or M. bovis, consisting of nonpathogens and pathogens causing opportunistic infections in immunocompromised patients and infections in otherwise normal individuals.

Mycobacterium

(mī'kō-bak-tē'rē-ŭm),
A genus of aerobic, nonmotile bacteria (family Mycobacteriaceae) containing gram-positive, acid-fast, slender, straight or slightly curved rods; slender filaments occasionally occur, but branched forms rarely are produced. Parasitic and saprophytic species occur. Several of species are associated with infections in immunocompromised people, especially those with AIDS. The type species is Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It is the type genus of the family Mycobacteriaceae.
[myco- + bacterium]

mycobacterium

(mī′kō-băk-tîr′ē-əm)
n. pl. mycobac·teria (-tîr′ē-ə)
Any of various rod-shaped, aerobic, often pathogenic bacteria of the genus Mycobacterium, including the causative agents of tuberculosis and leprosy.

my′co·bac·ter′i·al adj.

Mycobacterium

A genus of obligate aerobic bacteria, family Mycobacteriaceae, order Actinomycetales. All myobacteria are capable of producing the typical chronic inflammation, Langhans’ giant cells and caseating necrosis, and are indistinguishable by acid-fast staining (due to the high lipid concentration in the outer cell wall). Skin is the usual portal of entry for non-tuberculous mycobacteria.

Mycobacterium

A genus of obligate aerobic bacteria, family Mycobacteriaceae, order Actinomycetales; all are capable of producing the typical chronic inflammation, Langhans' giant cells and caseating necrosis, and are indistinguishable by acid-fast staining–due to the high lipid concentration in the outer cell wall; skin is the usual portal of entry for non-TB mycobacteria. See Acid-fast stain, Atypical mycobacteria, Buruli ulcer, Langhans' giant cells, MOTT, Nontuberculous mycobacteria, Prosector's wart, Runyon classification, Scrofula, Tuberculosis.

My·co·bac·te·ri·um

(mī'kō-bak-tēr'ē-ŭm)
A genus of aerobic, nonmotile bacteria (family Mycobacteriaceae) containing gram-positive, acid-fast, slender, straight or slightly curved rods; slender filaments occasionally occur, but branched forms rarely are produced. Parasitic and saprophytic species occur. Some species are associated with infections in immunocompromised people, especially those with AIDS. The type species is M. tuberculosis. It is the type genus of the family Mycobacteriaceae.
[myco- + bacterium]

Mycobacterium

(mi?ko-bak-tir'e-um) [ myco- + bacterium]
A genus of acid-fast, nonmotile, non–spore-forming bacilli of the family Mycobacteriaceae, which includes the causative agents of tuberculosis and leprosy. The organisms are slender, nonmotile, gram-positive rods and do not produce spores or capsules.

Species include M. africanum, M. avium intracellulare, M. bovis, M. chelonei, M. fortuitum, M. gastri, M. gordonae, M. kansasii, M. marinum, M. scrofulaceum, M. terrae, M. triviale, M. smegmatis, and M. xenopi.

Mycobacterium bovis

The causative species of tuberculosis in cows and, less commonly, in humans.

Mycobacterium kansasii

A causative species of tuberculosis-like pulmonary disease in humans.

Mycobacterium leprae

The causative species of leprosy.

Mycobacterium marinum

An atypical mycobacterium that thrives in water and produces skin infection resembling sporotrichosis. It is the cause of swimming pool granuloma.

nontuberculous Mycobacterium

Abbreviation: NTM
Any mycobacterium that does not cause tuberculosis. There are four main classes. Three of these groups grow more slowly than M. tuberculosis and one group grows more rapidly. These organisms may cause various skin, lung, or other conditions or they may be harmless.

Mycobacterium triplex

An emerging but still uncommon acid-fast bacillus that grows slowly. It differs from M. avium in having distinct mycolic acids and ribosomal RNA.
Enlarge picture
MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS: Acid-fast bacillus in sputum (orig. mag. ×500)

Mycobacterium tuberculosis

The causative agent of tuberculosis in humans. See: tuberculosis; illustration
illustration

Mycobacterium ulcerans

A causative agent of infections of the skin and the underlying soft tissues. It is a common cause of illness in tropical and subtropical Africa and South America, where it is responsible for Buruli ulcer. It is thought to be the third most common disease-causing mycobacterium (after M. tuberculosis and M. leprae) in humans.

Mycobacterium

A genus of ACID FAST bacteria that contains a number of species causing TUBERCULOSIS in humans and other animals and HANSEN'S DISEASE in humans. Species of medical importance include Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Mycobacterium leprae and Mycobacterium ulcerans .

My·co·bac·te·ri·um

(mī'kō-bak-tēr'ē-ŭm)
A genus of aerobic, nonmotile bacteria. Some species are associated with infections in immunocompromised people, especially those with AIDS. The type species is M. tuberculosis.
[myco- + bacterium]
References in periodicals archive ?
A heat-killed preparation of Mycobacterium obuense can reduce metastatic burden in vivo.
Proposal to elevate the genetic variant MAC-A, included in the Mycobacterium avium complex, to species rank as Mycobacterium chimaera sp.
Intractable cutaneous nontuberculous mycobacteriosis (Mycobacterium abscessus) during treatment for systemic lupus erythematosus.
Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium complexes by real-time PCR in bovine milk from Brazilian dairy farms.
Preheim, "Emergence of Mycobacterium kansasii as the leading mycobacterial pathogen isolated over a 20-year period at a midwestern Veterans Affairs hospital," Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol.
Mycobacterium fortuitum infection interference with Mycobacterium bovis diagnostics: Natural infection cases and a pilot experimental infection.
Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex exhibited serpentine cording in the liquid medium.
The Xpert MTB/RIF assay is a rapid PCR test for pulmonary Tuberculosis detection (sensitivity 89%, specificity 99%).4 Raj reported that this test should be amongst the major milestones for TB diagnosis and hence the management options.5 The Xpert MTB/RIF detects DNA sequences specific for mycobacterium tuberculosis and rifampicin resistance by polymerase chain reaction.4 It is based on the Cepheid GeneXpert system, a platform for rapid and simple-to-use nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT).
Identification of repetitive DNA sequence specific to Mycobacterium paratuberculosis.
The phylogenetic tree was formed with the genus Mycobacterium and four of its species by which the phylogenetic relationships between the collection strains and the strains isolated in the present investigation were observed (Figure 1).
Mycobacterium chelonae is a rapidly growing mycobacterium commonly found in water and soil.

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