However, it is thought that the tetrad of altered mental status, hyperthermia, muscle rigidity
, and autonomic instability comprise the illness' core symptomatology (Table 1) [6-10].
Sudden discontinuation of L-Dopa, which has a short half-life, can cause muscle rigidity
, difficulty in spontaneous respiration, and requirement of mechanical ventilation (1).
Briefly, the patient had decreased level of consciousness, intense muscle rigidity
, fever, drooling, diaphoresis, urinary incontinence, sweating, and increased blood pressure.
It is usually characterized by hyperpyrexia, muscle rigidity
, autonomic dysfunction, altered mental status, tremors, leukocytosis, and creatine kinase (CK) elevation.
Objective: Parkinson~s disease (PD) is a movement disorder characterized by muscle rigidity
, tremor, physical movement slowing and in extreme cases, loss of physical movement.
Typical Parkinson's disease therapy consists of drugs that stimulate dopamine to treat patients' motor symptoms, such as tremor, muscle rigidity
and difficulty with walking.
The DSM-IV-text revision requires both severe muscle rigidity
and elevated temperature to be present after recent administration of antipsychotics as well as two associated signs, symptoms or lab findings not better accounted for by a substance-induced, neurological or general medical condition.
On examination, it displayed bilateral exaggeration of the pelvic limb reflexes with extensor muscle rigidity
, intact superficial pain response, and positive withdrawal reflexes.
The diagnostic criteria for neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) provided in the fourth edition of the American Psychiatric Association Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV)[21 specify that the individual must exhibit severe muscle rigidity
and elevated temperature associated with the use of antipsychotic medication and have at least two of the following associated symptoms: (a) diaphoresis, (b) dysphagia, (c) tremor, (d) incontinence, (e) changes in level of consciousness ranging from confusion to coma, (f) mutism, (g) tachycardia, (h) elevated or labile blood pressure, (i) leukocytosis, or (j) laboratory evidence of muscle injury (e.g., elevated CPK).
There are numerous reports of muscle rigidity
following the use of fentanyl.
It is characterized by hyperthermia, muscle rigidity
, an elevated creatine kinase level and autonomic instability.
As noted, decreased GAD activity reduces GABA levels and raises levels of glutamate, a disequilibrium that causes muscle rigidity
. Diazepam is commonly used in high dosages as the first-line treatment for SPS.