However, the relative importance of different pathogens may differ because Australia has unique pathogens such as Murray Valley encephalitis virus
, Hendra virus, and Australian bat lyssavirus) (5).
Usutu virus (USUV) is a relatively unknown member of the mosquito-borne cluster within the Flavivirus genus, closely related to important human pathogens such as Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), Murray Valley encephalitis virus
(MVEV), Dengue virus (DENV), Yellow fever virus (YFV), Saint Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV), and West Nile virus (WNV) (1-3).
Monoclonal antibodies used for characterization of goose, stork, and gull isolates study, Israel, 1998 and 1999 MAb Reactivity Reference 2B4 WNV-type specific (E gene) 15 6B8 WNV-type specific (E gene) 15 6E12 WNV-type specific except KUN 15 (NS4a gene) 5F10 WNV specific Bat-El Lachmi 1C9 Flaviviruses Bat-El Lachmi 1B4 Flaviviruses Bat-El Lachmi F7/101 West Nile 16 6D12 Flaviviruses except Edge Hill and 17 Dengue virus 3H6 Murray Valley encephalitis virus
17 (Flavivirus) 813 Yellow fever virus (Flavivirus) 18 30.11 SINV 19 30.12 SINV 19 2F2 SINV (a) WNV= West Nile virus; SINV=Sindbis virus.
The etiologic agent was West Nile (WN) virus (2,3), a member of the Japanese encephalitis virus complex (genus Flavivirus, family Flaviviridae), which includes other mosquito-transmitted human pathogens such as Japanese encephalitis virus, SLE virus, Murray Valley encephalitis virus
, and Kunjin viruses (4).