Based on Maslow's work, Herzberg (1959, 1966 and 1974) proposed a motivator-hygiene theory
which suggests that the job itself might be the main cause of an individual's satisfaction within the said job.
According to Steers and Porter (1991), the implications of the Herzberg Motivator-Hygiene Theory were evident in the ability to increase motivation in the context of job satisfaction: basic changes in the nature of an employee's job will increase job satisfaction.
While the Motivator-Hygiene Theory received wide recognition, the theory has garnered much criticism (Steers & Porter, 1991).
Despite the criticisms noted, the Herzberg Motivator-Hygiene Theory has increased researchers' and supervisors' understanding of the role of motivation in the work environment (Steers & Porter, 1991).
The modified Wood instrument measured the motivator and hygiene factors related to Herzberg's Motivator-Hygiene Theory. The second instrument utilized by Bowen was the Brayfield-Rothe "Job Satisfaction Index" as modified by Warner (1973).
The study conducted by Bowen (1980) found results in contrast to the Herzberg Motivator-Hygiene Theory. Three factors classified as dissatisfiers, or hygiene factors (policy and administration, supervision-technical, and interpersonal relations) had the highest correlations with job satisfaction compared to the other factors.
(Wood, 1973) which assessed the dimensions of the Herzberg motivator-hygiene theory
. This Section consisted of a 75-item five-point Likert type scale with responses varying from 1 (very dissatisfied) to 5 (very satisfied).
His Motivator-Hygiene Theory continues to be required reading in many management courses and his article "Once More Time: How Do You Motivate Employees?" is one of Harvard Business Review's most requested reprints.
From these observations, Herzberg and his colleagues developed the Motivator-Hygiene Theory, which argued that motivation is made up of two different scales--job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction.
The two understandings of man correspond to the Motivator-Hygiene Theory and serve to confirm and extend the theory's application.
The instructor may use the exercise to teach a variety of motivational theories, including, but not limited to: Maslow's (1943; 1954) needs hierarchy theory, Alderfer's (1972) ERG Theory, Herzberg's motivator-hygiene theory
(Herzberg, Mausner, & Snyderman, 1959), McClelland's (1961) theory of learned needs, expectancy theory (Vroom, 1964), and equity theory (Adams, 1963).
According to Herzberg's Motivator-Hygiene Theory
, the most successful method of motivating is to build challenge and opportunity for achievement into the job itself.