Axons of granule cells in the DG, often referred to as mossy fibers, project to the CA3 through the hilus of the DG and make contact with pyramidal cells in the CA3, forming the DG-CA3 circuit.
In adults, mossy fibers normally project to proximal apical dendrites of pyramidal cells in the stratum lucidum (SL) of the CA3 (Figure 1(a)), whereas, during postnatal development, mossy fibers from the immature granule cells extend to both the SL and stratum oriens (SO), forming both suprapyramidal bundles (SPB) and infrapyramidal bundles (IPB), respectively (Figure 1(b)).
At the end of the experiments we perfused in the bath 2 [micro]M DCG-IV, a receptor agonist of Group II metabotropic glutamate that blocks glutamate release from mossy fibers terminals.
While stimulating mossy fibers at low frequency (0.1 Hz), EPSCs were elicited in pairs with an interpulse interval of 50 ms between the two stimuli in both dx and Hrmice (Figure 5(a), representative traces in dextrin and H.
We could observe the sprouting of mossy fibers in both the epileptic dentate gyrus and CA2 region.
Dent, "Development of the mossy fibers of the dentate gyrus: I.
All hippocampal mossy fibers contain zinc in presynaptic vesicles, and [Zn.sup.2+] is co-released with glutamate (Frederickson, 1989; Frederickson and Danscher, 1990).
The region of interest was set in the stratum lucidum, where mossy fiber terminals exist.
through mossy fibers
. Mossy fibers
send excitatory glutamatergic outputs to granule neurons, which in turn transmit excitatory synaptic information to Purkinje cells (Fig.
Furthermore, it remains unclear if decreased DG activity leads to less glutamatergic input to CA3 from the DG through mossy fibers
. Although mossy fibers
from the DG to CA3 are glutamatergic and come into direct contact with CA3 pyramidal neurons, many mossy fiber
synapses are connected to interneurons in CA3 that provide GABAergic inhibitory input to CA3 pyramidal cells.
Hippocampus analyses revealed disturbed cell firing, depressed cell responses to electric stimulation, dwindling numbers of synapses, and an expansion of a class of cells called mossy fibers
that may disrupt overall hippocampus function.
As the majority of the mossy fibers
(MFs) reaching the horizontal zone of the flocculus originated in the contralateral vestibular , the prepositus , the incertus nuclei , and the paramedian tract region , the section of the vestibular commissure in the cat resulted in the absence of VOR adaptation , and that inspite of that fact, the right and left flocculus were preserved.