While the classification of reading miscues varied in the literature (Akyol, 2010; Pearson, Barr, Kamil, & Mosenthal
, 1984), in the present study, the miscues such as omission, addition, reading incorrectly, hesitation, reversal were taken account and besides, there was another section in the teacher forms of the passage, showing starting and ending time of readings and corrects words read in a minute.
's Deborah--traveled across continents and media over a sixty-year period, allowing audiences around the world to share in the suffering of its Jewish heroine.
, Eds., National Governors Association and Council of Chief State School Officers, 2000.
Sobieski's world is further upset when two powerful merchant bankers, the tragic McGregor Hinton and the ambitious Julius von Mosenthal
, arrive in London--both with their own requirements of the prince.
Guthrie and Wigfield (in Kamil, Mosenthal
, Pearson, & Barr, 2014) for example, states that engaged learners coordinate their strategies (cognitively) within a supportive community (socially) in order to fulfil their goals (motivationally).
(Eds.), The handbook of reading research (pp.
(Eds.), Handbook of reading research (Vol.
In addition, the attempt to predict item difficulty level has generated a large number of studies where the basic interest has been to identify cognitive and linguistic predictors (Drum, Calfee & Cook, 1981; Stahl & Jacobson, 1986; Davey, 1988; Kirsch & Mosenthal
, 1990; Freedle & Kostin, 1991; Freedle & Kostin, 1992; Daneman & Hannon, 2001; Sheehan & Ginther, 2001; Gorin & Embretson, 2006; Ozuru, Rowe, O'Reilly & McNamara, 2008; Leroy, Helmreich & Cowie, 2010).
Following Halliday and Hasan (1985), Parsons (1991), Lee (2002), and Louwerse (2004), the term cohesion is used to distinguish textual elements on which coherent texts are built and not to delineate a cause-effect relationship as critics of Halliday and Hasan's (1976) framework pointed out (Carrell, 1982; Steffensen, 1981; Tierney & Mosenthal
, A., Murphy, P., Barker, L., Lavery, R., Retano, A., & Livingston, D.