Results: Moraxella catarrhalis
was isolated from 39 (5.02%) sputa of which 18 (46.15%) belonged to males.
TABLE 1 Bacterial distribution associated with RTIs Prevalence (%) Pathogen ABS ABECB CAP Streptococcus pneumoniae 20-43 3-25 20-60 Haemophilus influenzae 22-35 14-36 3-10 Moraxella catarrhalis
2-10 7-21 -- Staphylococcus aureus 0-8 3-20 3-5 Streptococcus spp 3-9 -- -- Anaerobes 0-9 -- -- Pseudomonas spp -- 1-15 -- Haemophilus parainfluenzae -- 2-28 -- Enterobacteriaceae spp -- 5-33 -- Mycoplasma pneumoniae -- -- 1-6 Chlamydia pneumoniae -- -- 4-6 Legionella spp -- -- 2-8 Gram-negative bacteria -- -- 3-10 ABECB, acute bacterial exacerbation of chronic bronchitis; ABS, acute bacterial rhinosinusitis; CAP, community-acquired pneumonia.
Hans Bisgaard and his colleagues from the Copenhagen University Hospital found colonization with Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and/or Moraxella catarrhalis
in 1-month-old infants also was associated with significant increases in the risk of the later development of certain asthma precursors, including persistent wheeze (hazard ratio 2.01), acute severe exacerbation of wheeze (HR 3.14), and hospitalization for wheeze (HR 3.57).
Penicillin-resistant pneumococci and beta-lactamase--producing strains of Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis
are especially important in this context.
Gemifloxacin, an oral broad-spectrum fluoroquinolone marketed as Factive by Oscient Pharmaceuticals, was approved in 2003 for treating mild to moderate community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) due to Streptococcus pneumoniae (including multidrug-resistant strains), Hemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis
, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydia pneumoniae, and Klebsiella pneumoniae and for treating acute bacterial exacerbations of chronic bronchitis (ABECB) due to S.
The typical causative pathogens of sinusitis include Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis
; the same organisms that cause otitis media.
These included members of the family Enterobacteriaceae (14 isolates, 37.84%), Non-fermentative gram-negative bacilli (NFGNB-22 isolates, 59.45%) and Moraxella catarrhalis
(1 isolate, 2.7%).
My clinical and laboratory group and others have described respiratory infections as resulting from the growth of a single otopathogen, such as Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn), nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi), or Moraxella catarrhalis
(Meat) in the nasopharynx (NP) followed by ascension to the middle ear, sinuses, or descent to the lungs.
During the first 3 weeks after the earthquake, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis
were more predominant than Streptococcus pneumoniae; most strains were isolated from purulent sputum specimens.
What is normal in the pharyngeal mucosa (e.g., S pneumoniae, H influenzae, S aureus, Moraxella catarrhalis
) can be deadly in the lower respiratory tract.
Most often, the offending pathogens are Streptococcus pneumoniae, Hemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis
. The remainder of COPD exacerbations results from unidentifiable causes.
influenzae the proportions were 48%, 57%, and 39%; and for Moraxella catarrhalis
, 6%, 8%, and 12%, respectively.