of the lineage that includes the Notonectidae and the Pleidae + Helotrephidae is supported by one synapomorphy (32-4).
MicroRNAs support the monophyly
of enteropneust hemichordates.
Considering the reciprocal monophyly
of regional samples at mitochondrial gene regions and extensive lineage sorting at nuclear gene regions, the results appear to be robust to sample size (Rosenberg 2007).
Damgaard (2008b) included representatives of PIatyvelia, Steinovelia, Stridulivela, and Velia, but found poor branch support and no convincing diagnostic characters for Veliinae, and suggested that the monophyly
of the subfamily should be tested by inclusion of more taxa.
A study such as this with only three representatives of the many species in outgroup taxa is not designed to test thelodont monophyly
. A more rigorous test of monophyly
would involve a much larger sampling from among other jawless vertebrates, and a much larger number of characters.
of Lepomis was well supported in each analysis and is in agreement with recent phylogenetic studies of the Centrarchidae genera (Near et al., 2004; Harris et al.
A molecular phylogeny of Panicum (Poaceae:Paniceae): tests of monophyly
and phylogenetic placement within the Panicoideae.
Evidences were presented by the latter mentioned author for that the Mesosemiina cluster (sensu stricto) has characters that support the monophyly
of the subtribal taxon (HALL, 2003).
is an assumption built into the methods of DNA sequence analysis, but it has its limitations.
Their phylogenetic tree argues against monophyly
of the genus Cricetulus.
Analyses of the combined data set composed of ITS and two chloroplast intergenic spacers (trnS-trnG and atpB-rbcL) further confirm the monophyly
of Oreomyrrhis and its sister taxon relationship with the North American Chaerophyllum.
Phylogenetic relationships of the genus Cnemidophorus (Squamata: Teiidae): a test of monophyly
, reevaluation of karyotypic evolution, and review of hybrid origins.