van Damme, "Human granulocyte chemotactic peptide (IL-8) as a specific neutrophil degranulator: comparison with other monokines
," Immunology, vol.
There are several different types of cytokines such as monokines
(cytokines produced by monocytes and macrophages), lymphokines (cytokines produced by lymphocytes), inflammatory peptides (cytokines produced by neutrophils), and vasoactive amines (cytokines produced by platelets and mast cells).
In established cutaneous LE lesions, the CXCR3 ligands CXCL9 (interferon-gamma [IFN[gamma]]-induced monokine
), CXCL10 (IFN[gamma]-inducible protein 10), and CXCL11 (IFN-inducible T cell alpha chemoattractant) are the most abundantly expressed chemokine family members.
expression in Langerhans' cell histiocytosis and sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy (Rosai-Dorfman disease) [see comments].
Age-related changes in monokine
production are not well delineated at this time; however, recent work comparing activated monocytes from older and young adults reveals diminished interleukin 1 (IL1) production, impairment of the oxidative burst, and a loss of tumoricidal capacity in monocytes from older adults.
On the other hand, interesting studies revealed that circulating levels of interferon-[gamma], interferon- [gamma]-induced chemokines, interferon-inducible T-cell alpha chemoattractant, interferon-inducible protein-10, and monokine
induced by interferon gamma are all increased in patients affected by TAAs, even if the levels of these chemokines do not correlate with the size of the aneurysms .
We evaluated the following pro-inflammatory cytokines: interleukin 1 b (IL-1[beta]), interleukin 2 (IL-2), IL 2 receptor (IL-2R), interleukin 5 (IL-5), interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 8 (IL-8), interleukin 12 (IL-12), interleukin 15 (IL-15), interleukin 17 (IL-17), epidermal growth factor (EGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), eotaxin, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), interferon [alpha] (IFN-[alpha]), interferon [gamma] (IFN-[gamma]), monokine
induced by IFN-[gamma] (MIG), inducible protein 10 (IP-10), monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1), macrophage inflammatory protein-1[alpha] (MIP-1-[alpha]), macrophage inflammatory protein-1[beta] (MIP-1-[beta]), and tumor necrosis factor [alpha] (TNF-[alpha]).
A multiplex immunobead assay (Luminex 200, Luminex Corp., Austin, TX, USA) was used to measure the concentrations of interleukin- (IL-) 1[beta], IL-6, tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) [alpha], interferon- (IFN-) [gamma], monokine
induced by IFN-[gamma] (MIG), and IFN-[gamma]-induced protein- (IP-) 10 in the conjunctiva, as previously stated .
Fallahi et al., "Monokine
induced by interferon [gamma] (IFN[alpha]) (CXCL9) and IFN[gamma] inducible T-cell [alpha]-chemoattractant (CXCL11) involvement in Graves' disease and ophthalmopathy: modulation by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-[gamma] agonists," The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol.
Chemokines: CXCL8/IL-8, monokine
induced by interferon-[gamma] (IFN- [gamma]) (CXCL9/MIG), IFN-[gamma]--inducible protein-10 (CXCL10/IP-10), monocyte chemoattractant protein--1 (CCL2/MCP-1), and regulated upon activation normal T cell--expressed and secreted (CCL5/RANTES).
Itoh Y, Okanoue T, Sakamoto S, Nishioji K, Yasui K, Sakamoto M, Kashima K (1995) Monokine
production by peripheral whole blood in chronic hepatitis C patients treated with interferon.
Berman, "Gamma interferon is the lymphokine and beta interferon the monokine
responsible for inhibition of fibroblast collagen production and late but not early fibroblast proliferation," The Journal of Experimental Medicine, vol.