Although his Origin of Species was published in 1859, by 1837 Darwin had already formulated the theory that life had evolved and "the emergence of new species was the result of descent of modification." (35) It may be thus derived that Carlyle with his belief in a divine maker, who intended the slavery for the Negroes, belonged to the "monogenist" group.
(48) Through this imagery of two trees from same stock, Mill presents the monogenist argument which claims that human beings all originated from the same source/stock, but the racial hierarchies and differences still remain.
For Morgan, and a number of his anthropological contemporaries, the explanation that could both explain this aspect of human difference while containing the distinctions within the monogenist
paradigm of the single human species was that the civilised family had a matriarchal communal origin, the central point of Engels' The Origin of the Family, Private ProperO, and the State (1884) (Hiatt 1996:60; Trautmann 1987: 2534; Wolfe 1999:73).
At least one book was written in 2007 that attempted to resuscitate the Pre-Adamite races (Mayer 2007.) Despite the popularity of polygenism in the 19th century, the most commonly held view for the origin of human races in America was monogenist
. The monogenist
view accepts only one Adam, but proposes that the difference races of men are descended from Noah.
The polygenists presented monogenists
with the choice of abandoning the orthodox interpretation of Creation occurring around six thousand years ago or rejecting environmental explanations of race.
The shift in the predominance of the polygenists and the monogenists
during the nineteenth century, for example, was not a revolutionary one and did not constitute a "paradigm shift." Moreover, since Kuhn first published his thesis, it is commonplace to presume, if not to investigate, how the organization and development of science cannot be divorced from the psychology and the politics of the collective non-scientific experience of the culture within which science emerges.
Among other Society members, we may discern three groups -- the Christian monogenists
, the hierarchical monogenist
geographers and naturalists (both secular and religious), and the polygenist colonial delegates and geographers.
Their issues were the fertility of hybrid species in zoology, the accuracy of Genesis, and the sources of African inferiority, which both monogenists
and polygenists assumed.
Naturalists divided roughly into two camps: the polygenists (those who argued for several distinct origins of the races) and the monogenists
(those who argued for one origin to all human kinds).
theories assumed as their foundational premise that all humankind was descended from a single origin and that racial differences were thus superficial and mutable.