Gene Upstream MCP-1 5'-GAGCCTGACATGCTTTCATCTA-3' NF-[kappa]B 5'-GTTGAGGGGACTTTCCCAGGC-3' [beta]-actin 5'-CATCACGTACCAAACTTCAA-3' Gene Downstream MCP-1 5'-TTTCCATTCACTGCTGAGAC-3' NF-[kappa]B 5'-TCAACTCCCCTGAAAGGGTCCG-3' [beta]-actin 5'-CATCACAGTACCGGATTGC-3' MCP-1: monocyte chemotactic protein 1
; NF-[kappa]B: nuclear factor kappa B.
IL: interleukin; IL-1RA: IL-1 receptor antagonist; IL-2RI: L-2 receptor; IFN-[alpha] and IFN-[gamma]: interferon [alpha] and [gamma]; MIG: monokine induced by IFN-[gamma]; TNF[alpha]: tumor necrosis factor [alpha]; EGF: epidermal growth factor; HGFh: epatocyte growth factor; VEGF: vascular endothelial growth factor; MIP-1[alpha] and MIP-1[beta]: macrophage inflammatory protein-1[alpha] and 1[beta]; G-CSF: granulocyte-colony stimulating factor; GM-CSF: granulocyte- macrophage stimulating factor; FGF-basic: basic fibroblast growth factor; MCP-1: eotaxin, monocyte chemotactic protein 1
; IP-10: inducible protein 10.
who observed that LDL(-) promotes monocyte chemotactic protein 1
(MCP1) and interleukin 8 (IL8) release in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) .
Previous studies of PlGF showed that it "stimulates vascular smooth muscle cell growth, recruits macrophages into atherosclerotic lesions, upregulates production of tumor necrosis factor--ct and monocyte chemotactic protein 1
by macrophages, and stimulates pathologic angiogenesis," they noted.