These five isolates were tested against twenty-three available antibiotics from, aminoglycosides, tetracyclines, quinolones, [beta]-lactams, monobactams
, sulphonamides, macrolides, cephalosporins, phosphonic acid and polypeptide classes of antimicrobials, showed increased resistance.
Carbapenemases represent the most versatile family of [beta]-lactamases that hydrolyze not only carbapenem but other beta-lactams as well, with the sporadic exception of monobactams
. The majority of them resist inhibition by all commercially viable beta-lactamase inhibitor (Maltezou, 2009).
Carbapenemases are plasmid-encoded and has reduced the activity of all penicillins, monobactams
, cephalosporins and carbapenems.
The [beta]-lactam drugs include Aminopenicillins, Cephalosporins, Carbapenems, and Monobactams
. There are different enzymes produced correspondingly against these antibiotics such as penicillinase, cephalosporinases, and carbapenemases22.
However, in AAH, use of monobactams
decreased significantly (coefficient -0.2382, p<0.01 [Appendix Table 4]).
* Sterile and high potency APIs, steroids, generics, monobactams
, boronic acids and controlled substances
Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases producing organisms break the beta-lactam ring, which leads to resistance to antimicrobials, such as cephalosporins and monobactams
. (4) In addition, extensive use of these drugs leads to mutations of ESBL genes and the emergence of ESBL infection.
They confer variable range of resistance to all beta-lactam antibiotics except the monobactams
such as aztreonam.
One of these drugs is typically a Beta-lactam antibiotic, a member of a family of antibiotics that includes penicillin derivatives, cephalosporins, monobactams
To the Editor: Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE) produce enzymes that confer resistance to penicillins, cephalosporins and monobactams
.  ESBL-PE represent a global concern in humans, in animals and in the environment and have therefore been recognised as pathogens of critical priority.
AmpC type [beta]-lactamases mediate resistance to both oxyimino- and 7-amethoxy-cephalosporins and monobactams