As a rule, the protagonist is, in Dolezel's terms, an "epistemic monad
" and always finds the conditions of his or her habitation disagreeable and uncommon.
One might object to the reading I am suggesting by noting that the temporal states of a monad
are temporary perceptual states and that these are actual rather than possible.
Now, as we know, instead of the atom Leibniz introduces the "monad
" as the ultimate substance of the world, and with it we come at last to plura-monism proper.
This perspective enabled him to conceive of all things as essentially motion albeit two different kinds of motion, and thereby to overcome the Cartesian dualism of thought and extension In his Monadology, Leibniz attempted to identify "simple substances" in the form of monads
or atoms as "the elements of things." These simple substances are noncomposite and do not come into existence by "natural means": They are, in short, the building blocks of the universe.
Computational lambda-calculus and monads
. In the Symposium on Logic in Computer Science.
To see this, let us compare the use of monads
in Haskell with the use of side effects in SML.
In Nietzsche: Volume One: The Will to Power as Art, Heidegger makes a tantalizing remark concerning how Leibniz's ontology of monads
and affects is really the basis of understanding Nietzsche's equally Baroque ontology.
Chapter 2 investigates the sense in which monads
are "in" a body and why bodies are phenomena despite the fact that all of their parts are true substances.
In the papers  and , the notion of distributive law was generalized by weakening the compatibility conditions with the units of the monads
. A so defined weak distributive law A [cross product] B [right arrow] B [cross product] A also induces an associative multiplication on B [cross product] A but it fails to be unital.
For the identities that are formed in hyperculture, Han resorts to the approaches of Ted Nelson and the explanation of the "windowing" world, hypertext space, where windows are access to the hypertextual universe the experience of the world is given from the passage through the window, there "there is no subject, in this universe there is no isolated unit for itself, they all reflect each other or let them reflect among themselves " [p.67], and compares it to the Monadic universe of Leibniz, to identify that unlike Monads
, it is not closed, there is no subject, "the inhabitant of the hypertextual universe would be a kind of "being-window, consisting of windows through which he would conceive the world.
It is quite wonderful to contemplate The Organs of Sense as the tragicomic illustration of Leibniz's universe of self-contained monads
between which no communication is possible.
All the unparticipated monads
are referred to the 'one,' because all are analogous to the 'one.' ...