covalent bond

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Related to Molecular bonds: Chemical bonding, Covalent bonding


the linkage between atoms or radicals of a chemical compound, or the symbol representing this linkage and indicating the number and attachment of the valencies of an atom in constitutional formulas, represented by a pair of dots or a line between atoms, e.g., H—O—H, H—C≡C—H or H:O:H, H:C:::C:H.
coordinate covalent bond a covalent bond in which one of the bonded atoms furnishes both of the shared electrons.
covalent bond a chemical bond between two atoms or radicals formed by the sharing of a pair (single bond), two pairs (double bond), or three pairs of electrons (triple bond).
disulfide bond a strong covalent bond, —S—S—, important in linking polypeptide chains in proteins, the linkage arising as a result of the oxidation of the sulfhydryl (SH) groups of two molecules of cysteine.
high-energy phosphate bond an energy-rich phosphate linkage present in adenosine triphosphate (ATP), phosphocreatine, and certain other biological molecules. On hydrolysis at pH 7 it yields about 8000 calories per mole, in contrast to the 3000 calories yielded by phosphate esters. The bond stores energy that is used to drive biochemical processes, such as the synthesis of macromolecules, contraction of muscles, and the production of the electrical potentials for nerve conduction.
high-energy sulfur bond an energy-rich sulfur linkage, the most important of which occurs in the acetyl-CoA molecule, the main source of energy in fatty acid biosynthesis.
hydrogen bond a weak, primarily electrostatic, bond between a hydrogen atom bound to a highly electronegative element (such as oxygen or nitrogen) in a given molecule, or part of a molecule, and a second highly electronegative atom in another molecule or in a different part of the same molecule.
ionic bond a chemical bond in which electrons are transferred from one atom to another so that one bears a positive and the other a negative charge, the attraction between these opposite charges forming the bond.
peptide bond the —CO—NH— linkage formed between the carboxyl group of one amino acid and the amino group of another; it is an amide linkage joining amino acids to form peptides.
References in periodicals archive ?
"Your body would stay whole until the instant the tidal force exceeded your body's molecular bonds," Tyson says.
Although it is the lightest element on the planet, liberating hydrogen from its molecular bonds can be a dirty process.
The photon energy of this laser reportedly is so high that the molecular bonds of most plastics can be broken, providing a high-contrast photochemical marking without burning, engraving, or damaging the surface.
Whereas optical spectroscopy allows scientists to probe the molecular bonds and atomic electrons of a sample's molecules, acoustic spectroscopy is typically more concerned with the bulk physical properties of the sample medium.
Coverage includes the basics of atomic structure, the nature of molecular bonds, and the mechanics of chemical reactions.
When food is irradiated, molecular bonds break apart and cause new and sometimes unique molecules to form.
The reaction creates heat and pressure around each bubble, which breaks molecular bonds in complex hydrocarbons, freeing them of contaminants.
This theory states that the energy of the high-charged electrical corona breaks the molecular bonds on the surface of the nonpolar substrate.
As with other types of ionizing radiation, such as gamma rays and x-rays, electron beam irradiation inactivates microorganisms by breaking molecular bonds in their DNA.
Because the process forms extremely tight molecular bonds with the chlorine atoms, no chlorine is added to the coolant.
Isomalt's low GI is due to the stability of its molecular bonds. Isomalt is manufactured from pure beet sugar in a two-stage process.
The energy from these ionized particles breaks the molecular bonds within tissue, disintegrating it, and producing only elementary molecules, inert gases, and a surface temperature of just 40 to 70 degrees C.

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