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factor IX (human)

AlphaNine SD, Immune VH (CA), Mononine

factor IX (recombinant)

BeneFix

factor IX complex

Bebulin VH, Defix (UK), Hipfix (UK), Octaplex (CA), Profilnine SD, Proplex T (heat-treated), Replenine (UK)

Pharmacologic class: Blood modifier

Therapeutic class: Antihemophilic

Pregnancy risk category C

Action

Converts fibrinogen to fibrin, increasing levels of clotting factors

Availability

Powder for injection: Various strengths; units specified on label

Indications and dosages

Factor IX deficiency (hemophilia B or Christmas disease); anticoagulant overdose

Adults and children: Dosage individualized; drug administered I.V. Use following equations to calculate approximate units needed:

Human product-1 unit/kg times body weight (in kg) times desired increase in factor IX level, expressed as percentage of normal

Recombinant product-1.2 units/kg times body weight (in kg) times desired increase in factor IX level, expressed as percentage of normal

Proplex T-0.5 unit/kg times body weight (in kg) times desired increase in factor IX level, expressed as percentage of normal

Off-label uses

• Hepatic dysfunction

• Esophagitis

• Unspecified GI hemorrhage (human product)

Contraindications

• Hypersensitivity to mouse or hamster protein (with BeneFix)

• Fibrinolysis

Precautions

Use cautiously in:

• recent surgery

• pregnant patients

• children younger than age 6 (safety and efficacy not established).

Administration

Give by slow I.V. infusion. Average infusion rate is 100 units (2 to 3 ml)/minute; don't exceed 10 ml/minute.

• If prescribed, administer hepatitis B vaccine before giving factor IX.

• Know that dosage is highly individualized according to degree of factor IX deficiency, patient's weight, and bleeding severity.

• Don't use glass syringe. Don't shake reconstituted solution or mix with other I.V. solutions.

Adverse reactions

CNS: light-headedness, paresthesia, headache

CV: blood pressure changes, thromboembolic reactions, myocardial infarction (MI)

EENT: allergic rhinitis

GI: nausea, vomiting

Hematologic: disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)

Respiratory: pulmonary embolism

Skin: rash, flushing, diaphoresis, pruritus, urticaria

Other: altered taste, fever, chills, burning sensation in jaw and skull, pain at I.V. injection site, hypersensitivity reactions including anaphylaxis

Interactions

Drug-drug. Aminocaproic acid: increased risk of thrombosis

Patient monitoring

• Be aware that factor IX complex may transmit hepatitis.

• Closely monitor vital signs during infusion.

Observe for hemolytic reaction. If it occurs, stop infusion, flush line with saline solution, and notify prescriber immediately.

• Monitor I.V. injection site closely.

Monitor coagulation studies closely. Know that drug may cause thromboembolic disorders, including MI and DIC.

Patient teaching

• Inform patient that drug may transmit diseases.

Tell patient to immediately report signs and symptoms of hypersensitivity reaction, including rash, hives, tightness in chest, wheezing, shortness of breath, and swelling of throat or lips.

Advise patient to immediately report unusual bleeding or bruising.

• Caution patient to avoid activities that can cause injury.

• Tell patient to wear medical identification stating that he has a blood-clotting disorder.

• Instruct patient to notify surgeon or dentist of his blood-clotting disorder before surgery or invasive dental procedures.

• As appropriate, review all other significant and life-threatening adverse reactions and interactions, especially those related to the drugs mentioned above.

McGraw-Hill Nurse's Drug Handbook, 7th Ed. Copyright © 2013 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

human

(hyo͞o′mən)
n.
A member of the primate genus Homo, especially a member of the species Homo sapiens, distinguished from other apes by a large brain and the capacity for speech.
adj.
Of, relating to, or characteristic of humans: the course of human events; the human race.

hu′man·hood′ n.
hu′man·ness n.
The American Heritage® Medical Dictionary Copyright © 2007, 2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

Patient discussion about human

Q. I am a man with breast cancer. Hello friends, you might have heard about breast cancer in women but here I am a man with breast cancer. Is Herceptin licensed to treat me?

A. Hi, what were your symptoms and when did you discover you had breast cancer?

Q. what are the basics products we as a humans, need to have in our diet?

A. A regular healthy diet should be comprised of a 40-50% carbohydrate (bread, rice, etc.), 30-40% protein (dairy, meat, chicken, fish) and 20% fat. Other important ingredients are fruit and vegetables, that contain large amounts of fibers and vitamins.

Q. Is there a difference between a man's diet and a woman's diet? let say for the point of it the weight the same and they are in the same age .

A. no one should have the same exact diet, you need to find what works for you and helps you achieve your goals.

the base of the diet could be the same, for example burn calories then you consume. But other wise, find what works for you.

More discussions about human
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References in periodicals archive ?
The researchers noted, however, that the differences they observed might have more to do with the functions of the Neanderthal body and "energy constraints" related to growth as opposed to differences in growth rates between (http://www.ibtimes.com/neanderthal-dna-reveals-human-evolution-timeline-through-genetic-mutations-2575910) Neanderthals and modern humans on a fundamental level.
"Our results contribute to the emerging notion that functional variation introgressed from an African hominin into modern humans and has been maintained among contemporary African populations," the study says.
In the last two years, a number of studies have suggested that modern humans and Neanderthals had at some point interbred.
"New dates at Jebel Faya reveal that modern humans migrated out of Africa much earlier than previously thought, helped by global fluctuations in sea level and climate change in the Arabian Peninsula," Armitage says.
"This was a place where Neandertals and modern humans were already known to be living, right in this region," says study coauthor David Reich of the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard in Cambridge, Mass.
Before the last Neanderthals died out, though, members of this species mated extensively with modern humans, leaving behind a footprint in our genome that is visible even today. According to (http://www.cell.com/cell/abstract/S0092-8674(17)30128-9) a study published Thursday in the journal Cell, these Neanderthal DNA sequences are influencing gene expression in modern humans to present day - especially those that contribute to traits such as height and susceptibility to schizophrenia.
In addition, the researchers found that the proportion of Neanderthal and Denisovan-DNA in this early modern human is not higher than in people living in this region nowadays.
Ancient humans lived in a "Lord of the Rings-type world" where a mystery species interbred with Neanderthals, Denisovans and the forerunners of modern humans, according to palaeontologists.
According to the researchers, the only modern humans whose ancestors did not interbreed with Neanderthals are apparently sub-Saharan Africans.
The find reveals that early modern human migrants did not simply follow the coast and go south to the islands of Southeast Asia and Australia, as some researchers have suggested, but that they also travelled north into very different types of terrain, Shackelford said.
The investigators conclude that modern humans emigrated from sub-Saharan Africa in the late Stone Age and produced European and western Asian populations that made rapid cultural strides.
Researchers are certain the jawbone belongs to a modern human as it retains characteristics found in modern humans.