moderate sedation


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moderate sedation

the administration of central nervous system depressant drugs and/or analgesics to provide analgesia, relieve anxiety, and/or provide amnesia during surgical, diagnostic, or interventional procedures. Consciousness is depressed, and the patient may fall asleep but is not unresponsive. Oversedation or an adverse patient response to sedation may result in life-threatening complications such as hypotension, loss of airway reflexes, inability to maintain a patent airway, hypoventilation, apnea, or agitation and movement at a critical point in the procedure. Anesthetic monitoring during conscious sedation includes at a minimum monitoring of blood pressure, electrocardiography, and pulse oximetry. See also anesthesia, awake anesthesia.
A minimally depressed level of consciousness induced by the administration of pharmacologic agents in which a patient retains the ability to independently and continuously maintain an open airway and a regular breathing pattern, and to respond appropriately and rationally to physical stimulation and verbal commands. Conscious sedation may be induced by parenteral or oral medications or combination thereof

moderate sedation

A medically controlled depressed state of consciousness in which patients can maintain an open airway and protective airway reflexes; respond appropriately when stimulated physically or verbally; and spontaneously maintain a stable heart rate and blood pressure.
See also: sedation
References in periodicals archive ?
Onset time, maximum effect, and duration of sedation (mean [+ or -] standard deviation) with intranasal diazepam, midazolam, and xylazine for moderate sedation in juvenile ostriches (n = 6).
For moderate sedation, we use chloral hydrate (Pharmaceutical Associates Inc.
Moderate sedation commonly is used for procedures that use an optical instrument called an endoscope for viewing inside the body.
His primary areas of practice have been in critical care, the emergency department, PACU, and specialty procedural areas with the delivery of moderate sedation.
A stage of moderate sedation was achieved if no response to audio, visual, or tactile stimulation was evoked.
Table 1 Tricyclic antidepressants used to treat pain Drug Dosage range for Comments pain (off-label) Amitriptyline 10 to 100 mg/d High sedation, high anticholinergic side effects Amoxapine 50 to 100 mg/d Low sedation, moderate anticholinergic side effects Clomipramine 25 to 100 mg/d Low sedation, low anticholinergic side effects Desipramine 25 to 100 mg/d Low sedation, low anticholinergic side effects Imipramine 25 to 100 mg/d Moderate sedation, moderate anticholinergic side effects Nortriptyline 10 to 75 mg/d Moderate sedation, low anticholinergic side effects Source: Reference 8
Table 1 Sedation scores 0 awake, alert 1 mild sedation, easy to rouse 1S* asleep, easy to rouse 2 moderate sedation, easy to rouse, unable to remain awake 3 difficult to rouse * May not be used in some centres where a score of 1 is used whether or not the patient is asleep.
If the dentist is to provide moderate sedation, however, which means a level of sedation which renders loss of consciousness unlikely, the dentist must obtain a permit.
Richmond Agitation Sedation Scale (RASS) Target RASS RASS description +4 Combative, violent, danger to staff +3 Pulls or removes tube(s) or catheters, aggressive +2 Frequent non-purposeful movement, fights ventilator +1 Anxious, apprehensive, but not aggressive 0 Alert and calm -1 Awakens to voice (eye opening/contact) >10 s -2 Light sedation, briefly awakens to voice (eye opening/contact) <10 s -3 Moderate sedation, movement or eye opening, no eye contact -4 Deep sedation, no response to voice, but movement or eye opening to physical stimulation -5 Not arousable, no response to voice or physical stimulation
The use of nitrous oxide with any other sedative drug reclassifies the sedation event into the moderate sedation category with appropriate hospital policies (e.
Recent studies suggest that low doses of conventional anesthetic drugs such as fentanyl and midazolam (Versed) can reduce the total dose of propofol to one that will induce only moderate sedation.
Maria Teresa Quiej Alvarez, who underwent more than three hours of surgery Friday, was breathing with the help of a ventilator and remained under moderate sedation, a UCLA's Mattel Children's Hospital spokesman said.

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