Onset time, maximum effect, and duration of sedation (mean [+ or -] standard deviation) with intranasal diazepam, midazolam, and xylazine for moderate sedation
in juvenile ostriches (n = 6).
For moderate sedation
, we use chloral hydrate (Pharmaceutical Associates Inc.
commonly is used for procedures that use an optical instrument called an endoscope for viewing inside the body.
His primary areas of practice have been in critical care, the emergency department, PACU, and specialty procedural areas with the delivery of moderate sedation
A stage of moderate sedation
was achieved if no response to audio, visual, or tactile stimulation was evoked.
Table 1 Tricyclic antidepressants used to treat pain Drug Dosage range for Comments pain (off-label) Amitriptyline 10 to 100 mg/d High sedation, high anticholinergic side effects Amoxapine 50 to 100 mg/d Low sedation, moderate anticholinergic side effects Clomipramine 25 to 100 mg/d Low sedation, low anticholinergic side effects Desipramine 25 to 100 mg/d Low sedation, low anticholinergic side effects Imipramine 25 to 100 mg/d Moderate sedation
, moderate anticholinergic side effects Nortriptyline 10 to 75 mg/d Moderate sedation
, low anticholinergic side effects Source: Reference 8
Table 1 Sedation scores 0 awake, alert 1 mild sedation, easy to rouse 1S* asleep, easy to rouse 2 moderate sedation
, easy to rouse, unable to remain awake 3 difficult to rouse * May not be used in some centres where a score of 1 is used whether or not the patient is asleep.
If the dentist is to provide moderate sedation
, however, which means a level of sedation which renders loss of consciousness unlikely, the dentist must obtain a permit.
Richmond Agitation Sedation Scale (RASS) Target RASS RASS description +4 Combative, violent, danger to staff +3 Pulls or removes tube(s) or catheters, aggressive +2 Frequent non-purposeful movement, fights ventilator +1 Anxious, apprehensive, but not aggressive 0 Alert and calm -1 Awakens to voice (eye opening/contact) >10 s -2 Light sedation, briefly awakens to voice (eye opening/contact) <10 s -3 Moderate sedation
, movement or eye opening, no eye contact -4 Deep sedation, no response to voice, but movement or eye opening to physical stimulation -5 Not arousable, no response to voice or physical stimulation
The use of nitrous oxide with any other sedative drug reclassifies the sedation event into the moderate sedation
category with appropriate hospital policies (e.
Recent studies suggest that low doses of conventional anesthetic drugs such as fentanyl and midazolam (Versed) can reduce the total dose of propofol to one that will induce only moderate sedation
Maria Teresa Quiej Alvarez, who underwent more than three hours of surgery Friday, was breathing with the help of a ventilator and remained under moderate sedation
, a UCLA's Mattel Children's Hospital spokesman said.